Skip to main content

Welcome, the Hub connects all projects

Member Profile

Lee Shulman




Lee S. Shulman is the 8th President of The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The Foundation was created by Andrew Carnegie in 1905 and chartered by the United States Congress in 1906. Its mission is "to do and perform all things necessary to encourage, uphold and dignify the profession of teaching."

Shulman was the first Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education and Professor (by courtesy) of Psychology at Stanford University. The Ducommun Chair was endowed in early 1989 to support a senior member of Stanford's education faculty "whose research and teaching activities focus on improving teaching and the education of teachers both in precollegiate schools and in colleges and universities." He was previously Professor of Educational Psychology and Medical Education at Michigan State University, serving as a member of that faculty from 1963 to 1982. He was the founding Co-Director of the Institute for Research on Teaching (IRT) at Michigan State University from 1976.

Shulman is a past president of the American Educational Research Association (AERA). He is a member of the National Academy of Education, having served as both vice-president and president of that organization. He has received AERA's highest honor, the career award for Distinguished Contributions to Educational Research. He is also the recipient of the 1995 E.L. Thorndike Award for Distinguished Psychological Contributions to Education from the American Psychological Association's Division of Educational Psychology. Most recently, he was elected a Fellow of The American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2002.

Shulman's research and writings have dealt with the study of teaching and teacher education; the growth of knowledge among those learning to teach; the assessment of teaching; medical education; the psychology of instruction in science, mathematics, and medicine; the logic of educational research; and the quality of teaching in higher education.

His studies of medical reasoning (with Arthur Elstein) were the most thorough investigations of the cognitive processes of medical problem solving of their time and were published as Medical Problem Solving by Harvard University Press in 1978. His research group at Stanford laid the conceptual foundations for a reconsideration of the nature of teacher knowledge, with special reference to the role of content understanding in the pedagogical process. Between 1985-1990, Shulman and his colleagues conducted the technical studies and field tests that supported the creation of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

Since 1990, Shulman has collaborated with Pat Hutchings and Russell Edgerton (both then at the American Association for Higher Education) on programs and research to strengthen the role of teaching in higher education. These studies have emphasized the importance of "teaching as community property" and the central role of a "scholarship of teaching" in supporting the needed changes in the cultures of higher education. Those themes remain central to the mission of the Carnegie Foundation. 


Teaching and Teacher Education 


See for a list of publications and speeches.