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MSP News: Gender Differences in STEM Education

June 21, 2018


NEWS IN BRIEF


Upcoming NSF Solicitation Deadlines
1. STEM + Computing K-12 Education (STEM+C)
Deadline: July 2, 2018
2. Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST)
Deadine: August 8, 2018

New in Library
1. "Gender Differences in Students’ Physical Science Motivation: Are Teachers’ Implicit Cognitions Another Piece of the Puzzle?," Almut E. Thomas, American Educational Research Journal, February 2017.
2. "The “Exceptional” Physics Girl: A Sociological Analysis of Multimethod Data From Young Women Aged 10-16 to Explore Gendered Patterns of Post-16 Participation," Louise Archer, Julie Moote, Becky Francis, Jennifer DeWitt, Lucy Yeomans, American Educational Research Journal, February 2017.
3. "Programming Experience Promotes Higher STEM Motivation Among First-Grade Girls," Allison Master, Sapna Cheryan, Adriana Moscatelli, Andrew N. Meltzoff, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, August 2017.
4. "Systemizing and the Gender Gap: Examining Academic Achievement and Perseverance in STEM," Tomas Jungert, Kyle Hubbard, Helena Dedic, Steven Rosenfield, European Journal of Psychology of Education, June 2018.
5. "Gender Achievement Gaps in U.S. School Districts," Sean F. Reardon, Erin M. Fahle, Demetra Kalogrides, Anne Podolsky, Rosalia C. Zarate, Center for Education Policy Analysis (CEPA), 2018.

2018 STEM for All Video Showcase
This week we feature three videos from the 2018 STEM for All Video Showcase that address the gender gap in STEM education.

Title: Empowering Young Girls in STEM

Presenter(s): Allison Master, Sapna Cheryan, Andrew Meltzoff, Joy Mendoza, & Adriana Moscatelli

Title: Redesigning Environments Increases Girls' Interest in CS

Presenter(s): Sapna Cheryan, Allison Master, Terrence Pope, & Kristi Yamamoto

Title: A Focus on Girls' Math Identity for Brighter Futures

Presenter(s): Merle Froschl & Maryann Stimmer


DETAILS BELOW


Upcoming NSF Solicitation Deadlines
1. STEM + Computing K-12 Education (STEM+C)

Deadline: July 2, 2018

A new Program Description (PD) for the STEM + Computing K-12 Education (STEM+C) program has been posted (18-005Y); see the announcement. NSF is trying a new approach to requesting and handling proposals, and the STEM+C program is leading the effort. Here is some clarifying guidance on this new process:

  1. There is no solicitation. Proposals are to be structured and submitted according to NSF’s Proposal and Award Policies & Procedures Guide (PAPPG).
  2. There are no set funding categories, strands, project durations, or funding limits. Follow the Proposal and Award Policies & Procedures Guide (PAPPG) guidelines for Full Proposals, Supplements to Awards, Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REUs), and EAGERs. Set reasonable project goals, costs, and project duration for the nature and scope of the proposed project.
  3. There is no submission deadline. You may submit STEM+C proposals at any time for review. If you want to be considered for funding during the current fiscal year (FY18), you must submit a proposal by July 2, 2018.
  4. Guidance on intellectual direction: Please keep in mind the full intent of the posted STEM+C Program Description: The STEM+C Program focuses on research and development of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches to the integration of computing within STEM teaching and learning for preK-12 students in both formal and informal settings. The STEM+C program supports research on how students learn to think computationally to solve interdisciplinary problems in science and mathematics.

Please refer to the STEM+C Program Description and FAQs that have been posted for guidance. Funding for this program is currently available. Submit your proposal by July 2 if you wish to be considered for funding during the current fiscal year that ends in September.

For more information: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/announce/show/id-384


2. Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST)

Deadine: August 8, 2018
Full Solicitation: https://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2017/nsf17565/nsf17565.htm
View Program Page: https://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=5467

Synopsis: As the nation continues to expand the horizon of opportunities and possibilities through advances in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), the need for a more diverse and well-prepared STEM workforce is also expanding1. The challenge of preparing citizens for the expanding workforce and the changing workplace environments calls for new innovations in STEM education2. ITEST is a research and development program that supports projects to promote PreK-12 student interests and capacities to participate in the STEM and information and communications technology (ICT) workforce of the future. The ITEST program supports research on the design, development, implementation, and selective spread of innovative strategies for engaging students in technology-rich experiences that:
(1) increase student awareness of STEM occupations;
(2) motivate students to pursue appropriate education pathways to STEM occupations; or
(3) develop disciplinary-based knowledge and practices, or promote critical thinking, reasoning skills, or communication skills needed for entering STEM workforce sectors.
ITEST projects may adopt an interdisciplinary focus that includes multiple STEM disciplines, focus on a single discipline, or focus on one or more sub-disciplines. The ITEST program supports projects that provide evidence for factors, instructional designs, and practices in formal and informal learning environments that broaden participation of students from underrepresented groups in STEM fields and related education and workforce domains. Projects that actively engage business and industry partners to better ensure that PreK-12 experiences foster the knowledge and skill-sets needed for emerging STEM occupations are strongly encouraged.


For more information: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/announce/show/id-387


New in Library
1. "Gender Differences in Students’ Physical Science Motivation: Are Teachers’ Implicit Cognitions Another Piece of the Puzzle?," Almut E. Thomas, American Educational Research Journal, February 2017.

"Implicit stereotypes associating science with male might play a role in the development of gender differences in students' motivations for physical science. Particularly, the stereotypes of influential adults may induce students' regulatory foci and subsequently their motivational beliefs. Drawing on expectancy-value theory, this study investigated whether teachers' implicit science-is-male stereotypes predict between-teacher variation in males' and females' motivational beliefs regarding physical science. Results showed that teachers' implicit science-is-male stereotypes are positively related with males' self-concept and intrinsic value but negatively associated with females' motivational beliefs. The findings of this study corroborate the notion that teachers' implicit stereotypes can contribute to gender differences in motivational beliefs and probably also to gendered educational choices."

MSPnet Location: Library >> Ed Change & Policy
http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/33523


2. "The “Exceptional” Physics Girl: A Sociological Analysis of Multimethod Data From Young Women Aged 10-16 to Explore Gendered Patterns of Post-16 Participation," Louise Archer, Julie Moote, Becky Francis, Jennifer DeWitt, Lucy Yeomans, American Educational Research Journal, February 2017.

"Female underrepresentation in postcompulsory physics is an ongoing issue for science education research, policy, and practice. In this article, we apply Bourdieusian and Butlerian conceptual lenses to qualitative and quantitative data collected as part of a wider longitudinal study of students' science and career aspirations age 10-16. Drawing on survey data from more than 13,000 year 11 (age 15/16) students and interviews with 70 students (who had been tracked from age 10 to 16), we focus in particular on seven girls who aspired to continue with physics post-16, discussing how the cultural arbitrary of physics requires these girls to be highly 'exceptional,' undertaking considerable identity work and deployment of capital in order to 'possibilize' a physics identity--an endeavor in which some girls are better positioned to be successful than others."

MSPnet Location: Library >> Ed Change & Policy
http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/33524


3. "Programming Experience Promotes Higher STEM Motivation Among First-Grade Girls," Allison Master, Sapna Cheryan, Adriana Moscatelli, Andrew N. Meltzoff, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, August 2017.

"The gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement is large and persistent. This gap is significantly larger in technological fields such as computer science and engineering than in math and science. Gender gaps begin early; young girls report less interest and self-efficacy in technology compared with boys in elementary school. In the current study (N=96), we assessed 6-year-old children's stereotypes about STEM fields and tested an intervention to develop girls' STEM motivation despite these stereotypes. First-grade children held stereotypes that boys were better than girls at robotics and programming but did not hold these stereotypes about math and science. Girls with stronger stereotypes about robotics and programming reported lower interest and self-efficacy in these domains. We experimentally tested whether positive experience with programming robots would lead to greater interest and self-efficacy among girls despite these stereotypes. Children were randomly assigned either to a treatment group that was given experience in programming a robot using a smartphone or to control groups (no activity or other activity). Girls given programming experience reported higher technology interest and self-efficacy compared with girls without this experience and did not exhibit a significant gender gap relative to boys' interest and self-efficacy. These findings show that children's views mirror current American cultural messages about who excels at computer science and engineering and show the benefit of providing young girls with chances to experience technological activities."

MSPnet Location: Library >> Ed Change & Policy
http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/33525


4. "Systemizing and the Gender Gap: Examining Academic Achievement and Perseverance in STEM," Tomas Jungert, Kyle Hubbard, Helena Dedic, Steven Rosenfield, European Journal of Psychology of Education, June 2018.

"For years, a popular explanation for women choosing to abandon studies in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has been their lack of aptitude. This study challenged that notion by integrating theories of cognitive style, academic emotion, self-efficacy, and motivation to explain students' academic achievement and perseverance in STEM when transitioning to college. A sample of 1597 high school and junior college students participated. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were first conducted to validate a reduced version of the cognitive style questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that the cognitive style known as systemizing indirectly predicted STEM achievement and persistence by way of intrinsic motivation, learning anxiety, and self-efficacy, providing a new perspective for re-examining the gender gap in STEM."

MSPnet Location: Library >> Ed Change & Policy
http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/33526


5. "Gender Achievement Gaps in U.S. School Districts," Sean F. Reardon, Erin M. Fahle, Demetra Kalogrides, Anne Podolsky, Rosalia C. Zarate, Center for Education Policy Analysis (CEPA), 2018.

"In the first systematic study of gender achievement gaps in U.S. school districts, we estimate male-female test score gaps in math and English Language Arts (ELA) for nearly 10,000 school districts in the U.S. We use state accountability test data from third through eighth grade students in the 2008-09 through 2014-15 school years. The average school district in our sample has no gender achievement gap in math, but a gap of roughly 0.23 standard deviations in ELA that favors girls. Both math and ELA gender achievement gaps vary among school districts and are positively correlated - some districts have more male-favoring gaps and some more female-favoring gaps. We find that math gaps tend to favor males more in socioeconomically advantaged school districts and in districts with larger gender disparities in adult socioeconomic status. These two variables explain about one fifth of the variation in the math gaps. However, we find little or no association between the ELA gender gap and either socioeconomic variable, and we explain virtually none of the geographic variation in ELA gaps."

MSPnet Location: Library >> Ed Change & Policy
http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/33527


2018 STEM for All Video Showcase
This week we feature three videos from the 2018 STEM for All Video Showcase that address the gender gap in STEM education.

Title: Empowering Young Girls in STEM

Presenter(s): Allison Master, Sapna Cheryan, Andrew Meltzoff, Joy Mendoza, & Adriana Moscatelli

Title: Redesigning Environments Increases Girls' Interest in CS

Presenter(s): Sapna Cheryan, Allison Master, Terrence Pope, & Kristi Yamamoto

Title: A Focus on Girls' Math Identity for Brighter Futures

Presenter(s): Merle Froschl & Maryann Stimmer