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The Effects of Parent's SES and Education Level on Students' Mathematics Achievement: Examining the Mediation Effects of Parental Expectations and Parental Communication


"Although there has been prior research concerning parental involvement effects on students' mathematics achievement, little attention has been placed on the reasons for the mathematics achievement gap between low-and middle-income students, and how to reduce this gap associated usually attributed to students' SES. The present study's focus is specifically on parent-child communication and parental expectations mainly because these two variables can increase students' mathematics achievement despite parental income and education level. The correlation matrix was derived from a national, cross-sectional study of children. The 1997 Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID-CDS) data set was used to analyze the hypothesized model using SEM. The goodness-of-fit indices for the hypothesized model fit well to the data."