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MSP Papers on Teacher Quality, Quantity, and Diversity: A dynamically generated bibliography of MSP authored papers

Abstract

A primary strand of the work of the Math Science Partnerships is Teacher Quality, Quantity and Diversity. Many MSPs have written papers addressing this concern. Below you will find a dynamically generated bibliography drawn from papers authored by the MSPs, which you can view with or without abstracts. This will automatically update as new papers are added to the MSpnet library. We invite you use this list as you contribute to the literature on teacher quality, quantity, and diversity.

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122 documents as of 09/21/2017

Terry Ackerman, Tina Heafner, Deborah Bartz (2006). Teacher Effect Model for Impacting Student Achievement. AERA.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14051
Abstract: Research recognizes that the greatest determinate of student achievement is the teacher, yet questions remain as to what characteristics of teachers are the most influential. This paper explores the teacher effect through the evaluation of the interaction among characteristics of four teacher profiles using Surveys of Enacted Curriculum. This Teacher Effect Model was designed to evaluate the future impacts of sustained professional development.
M. Aguilar (2007). The Mathematics Specialist From a Dual Language Immersion Perspective. The Journal of Mathematics and Science.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23877
Abstract: A teacher leader describes the use of specific materials and lesson plans to promote language accessibility, cultural relevance, enhanced thinking, and discourse in the mathematics class of a dual language immersion program. Through a diverse collection of strategies, materials, and technology, the specific needs of the second language math student are addressed. The lessons are based on an integrated approach where vocabulary and materials are carefully chosen and adapted in order to provide comprehensible input. These activities are student-centered, hands-on experiences that enhance students' thinking skills.
Michael B. Allen (2010). Improving State Need Assessments of Secondary Science and Mathematics Teachers: Challenges, Possibilities, and Recommendations. APLU.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/20663
Abstract: Accompanying the growing call of our nation's political, business, and education leaders to strengthen the science and mathematics skills of our nation's children is the recognition that this will not be possible unless we have a sufficient number of well-qualified and effective K-12 science and mathematics teachers. In response, state and university leaders are making commitments to increase significantly the number of science and mathematics teachers they produce, particularly at the secondary level. Few, however, have made these commitments on the basis of a careful assessment of the adequacy of the current science and mathematics teacher workforce. It is precisely the goal of this report to help state and university leaders develop better assessments of the need for secondary school science and mathematics teachers. The report is part of a larger effort by the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities - the Science and Mathematics Teacher Imperative (SMTI) - to support the efforts of its member institutions to strengthen science and mathematics teacher preparation. Especially in an era of declining state resources and retrenched university budgets, a thorough and reliable assessment of the need for science and mathematics teachers is imperative if states and institutions are to respond appropriately and cost-effectively.
Ronald Atwood, John E. Christopher, Rebecca K. Combs, Elizabeth Roland (2009). Inservice Elementary Teachers' Understanding Of Magnetism Concepts Before And After Non-Traditional Instruction. Science Educator.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24574
Abstract: "Magnetism is a topic frequently studied in elementary schools. Since magnetism is a popular topic and is included in national science education standards, it might be assumed that elementary teachers have a good understanding of this topic and that elementary students develop a good understanding of fundamental magnetism concepts. Unfortunately, evidence suggests that magnetism concepts are poorly understood across a broad range of potential learners. The lack of successful teaching and learning of magnetism concepts that occurs at the elementary level may be partly due to deficiencies in elementary science textbooks for elementary students and elementary science methods and materials textbooks for teachers. However, ineffective science content courses in teacher preparation are likely to be a much larger problem. There is a clearly identified need to improve instruction on magnetism, and elementary science teacher education is a logical place to focus. This article reports a descriptive study of in-service elementary teachers' understanding of magnetism concepts and confidence in their understanding of those concepts before and after non-traditional instruction that utilizes instructional activities from 'Physics by Inquiry.'"
Lindsay Augustyn, Jim Lewis, Wendy Smith, Ruth Heaton, Michelle Homp (2015). NebraskaMATH Final Report. online website at UNL.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/28022
Abstract: Over the past six years, the $9.3 million NSF-funded NebraskaMATH grant has impacted more than 700 teacher leaders across the state. The NebraskaMATH Final Report, published in 2015, showcases the scope of the grants three core programs, Primarily Math, New Teacher Network and Nebraska Algebra, as well as the programs that grew from them. The report tells some of the stories of NebraskaMATH and its impact on mathematics teaching and learning in Nebraska.
Nathan Barrett, J.S. Butler, Eugenia Toma (2012). Do Less Effective Teachers Choose Professional Development: Does It Matter?. Evaluation Review.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25405
Abstract: A major current policy question is whether in-service training can improve teacher quality and student outcomes in K-12 schools. This paper argues that the evidence on the effectiveness of professional development thus far is less definitive than it should be, in part, because past evaluations have failed to account for the non-random selection of teachers into the programs. If high quality teachers, a priori, are provided with professional development, evidence may suggest an effective treatment even when the measured effect is actually reflecting the fact that the treatment is applied to already high-performing teachers. The reverse holds if less effective teachers are targeted for professional development.
This paper recognizes this potential bias and provides a method for correcting the non-random selection into the program. The correction offered in this paper is complicated by the fact that teaching effectiveness can be measured only partially with observable factors. By estimating the contribution of unobservable factors on a teacher's own past effectiveness, we find that this particular program, through targeting poor performing districts, succeeded in attracting the weakest teachers into the professional development activities. Controlling for this, the professional development program shows positive effects. This paper provides a road map for future evaluations not only of this program but other teacher professional development training programs in which selection of teachers is likely to be non-random and often based on unobservable teacher effectiveness. Only with evaluation replication for a variety of programs can policy advice about designing future professional development be offered.
NOTE: This resource is published on the Evaluation Review web site. The link above will take you to an abstract page. To view the full-text for this article, you will need to either sign-in to Evaluation Review with the appropriate membership or purchase this article.
Carole Basile, Karen Koellner, Doris Kimbrough, Michael Jacobson, Linda Morris, Barbara Heath, Aruna Lakshmanan (2006). The Veritable Quandary of Measuring Teacher Content Knowledge in a Math and Science Partnership. MSP Evaluation Summit II.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13461
Abstract: "How can teachers gain the knowledge of mathematics or science to successfully teach? To address this question, a number of researchers are heavily engaged in specifying the professional knowledge that mathematics and science teachers need and what course work would provide the skills and abilities to develop professional knowledge. The beginning of contemporary efforts to explore teachers' professional knowledge is typically attributed to Lee Shulman and his presidential address at the 1985 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, entitled "Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching." In the published version of that address, Shulman (1986) suggested that "we distinguish among three categories of content knowledge: (a) subject matter content knowledge, (b) pedagogical content knowledge, and (c) curricular knowledge" (p. 9). Educational scholars have built upon and extended Shulman's seminal work on teachers' professional knowledge, particularly within the domains of subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge (Ball, Thames & Phelps, 2005). This paper provides an account of the difficulty of measuring subject-matter content knowledge and the philosophical and practical problems that occurred in this math and science partnership in the early years as well as possible solutions for the future."
Virginia Bastable, L. Menster (2005). Designing Professional Development Activities for Mathematics Specialists. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Exploratio.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23915
Abstract: "The work of Mathematics Specialists may include conducting professional development activities, working with teachers in their classrooms, interpreting local curriculum goals in the light of national standards and published curriculum, and communicating with parents and the general public about the purposes and accomplishments of the school's mathematics program. ... Much has been written about the professional development needs of both pre-service and in-service teachers [1-5]. In our work, we examine the connections between designing professional development for teachers and for Mathematics Specialists. What is it that Mathematics Specialists should learn in their professional development experiences and how might that learning take place?"
Alfredo Bautista, Barbara M. Brizuela, Corinne R. Glennie, Mary C. Caddle (2014). Mathematics Teachers Attending and Responding to Students' Thinking: Diverse Paths across Diverse Assignments. International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/27213
Abstract: "Professional development (PD) programs often evaluate their impact on teachers' learning by assessing teachers either individually or in groups. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the variety of paths teachers might follow as a result of working in groups within online PD settings. Data are drawn from a PD program for grades 5-9 mathematics teachers."
Rolf Blank, Nina de las Alas, Carlise Smith (2008). Does Teacher Professional Development Have Effects on Teaching and Learning?. Chief Council of State School Officers.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/15474
Abstract: "CCSSO, with a grant from the National Science Foundation, conducted a two-year study of the quality and effects of teacher professional development programs in mathematics and science. CCSSO examined evidence from 25 nominated programs across 14 states, including 41 evaluation reports.

Key findings of the CCSSO cross-state analysis are: One-third of the evaluation studies reported measurable effects on improved student outcomes, increased teacher knowledge or change in instructional practices.

Three key program design characteristics in effective programs are: a) Focus on subject content and pedagogical knowledge, b) In-school follow-up and technical assistance with teachers, and c) Coherence of professional development with standards and curriculum.

Evaluations showing measurable effects used scientific study designs, included treatment and control groups of teachers, and used well-tested instruments.

The paper provides recommendations in key areas for state action based on the findings analysis."
David Blount, Judy Singleton (2008). School Division Leaders Keen on In-School Mathematics Experts. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24126
Abstract: "The members of the policy team for the TPC grant project interviewed 12 school division policy leaders about the important role of mathematics specialists in their school divisions. They discussed their reasons for wanting a specialist in their schools, the possibility of continuing to employ a specialist beyond the grant funding period, the program designed for training specialists, the possibility of expanding the program to other elementary and middle schools in the state. The division policy leaders were very supportive of mathematics specialists and the important role they play in elementary school buildings."
Kathleen Bocian, Rosalie T. Torres, Michael Bryant, Kimberly Hammond (2005). Evidence-Based Design from the Mathematical ACTS MSP Project at the University of California-Riverside. MSP Evaluation Summit.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/12666
Abstract:

"The research and evaluation theme of this proposal from the Mathematical ACTS MSP project at the University of California-Riverside is evidence-based design for facilitating teacher change. Using the project's logic model this paper will begin with an overview of its activities, intended outcomes, and evaluation design. The remainder of the paper will focus on the development, training and administration, and results from an observation instrument used to assess the classroom practices of teachers who participated in Mathematical ACTS professional development and follow-up support over the previous school year, as well as the practices of comparison group teachers. The role of this assessment in the project's evidence-based design will also be explained.

Specifically, the paper will describe: the project's decision to create an observation instrument rather than use one of several existing instruments, the collaborative development process involving core team members, training of observers, procedures for establishing inter-rater reliability, the use of the instrument, analyses conducted and lessons learned for this pilot year.

Preliminary findings from the observations will compare Mathematical ACTS participants and non-participants. Interpretation of these findings will be discussed, along with anticipated further analyses. The paper will conclude with a discussion of issues and challenges, plans for observations to be conducted in the 2005-06 school year, and commentary on this assessment's role in providing evidence for the effectiveness of Mathematical-ACTS."

J. J. Bolyard, P. S. Moyer-Packenham (2008). A Review of the Literature on Mathematics and Science Teacher Quality. Peabody Journal of Education.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23942
Abstract: A large body of literature exists that examines teacher quality characteristics and the relationship of indicators of those characteristics to teacher effectiveness. This existing research literature broadly views teacher quality research without illuminating specific areas of teacher quality, such as mathematics and science. In an effort to focus the literature base for researchers and policy makers more narrowly, this review specifically examines teacher quality as it relates to mathematics and science teaching and learning. The review highlights key policy and practitioner perspectives, provides a focused synthesis on current research findings on mathematics and science teacher quality, and suggests areas of research that are limited in the literature.
Edward Britton (2012). Final grant evaluation report & case studies of four institutions' APLU-supported advancements in science and mathematics teacher preparation. .
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25243
Abstract: This document is a final report on data from the external evaluation of The Leadership Collaborative (TLC). The TLC was a project during 2008-2012 by the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) and 25 member universities and colleges. Institutions pursued advances in their education of prospective middle and high school teachers in the subjects of science or mathematics. The project was funded by a National Science Foundation grant from NSF's Mathematics-Science Partnership program, Research, Evaluation and Technical Assistance projects (MSP-RETA): "Promoting Institutional Change to Strengthen Science Teacher Preparation", grant #0831950.
Alice Brown, Kathy Harris, Joyce Hodges, Ray Jernigan (2006). Mathematics Coaching: A Next Step In The NC-PIMS Mathematics Leadership Initiative. NC-PIMS White Paper.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14164
Abstract: "The North Carolina Partnership for Improving Mathematics and Science (NC-PIMS), a comprehensive mathematics and science grant co-funded by the U.S. Department of Education and the National Science Foundation, began work with mathematics Facilitators and Lead Teachers in August 2003. The vision of NC-PIMS is to improve the mathematics learning of all students, while simultaneously closing the achievement gaps between racial and ethnic groups. The vision is supported by the following three goals: develop leadership and policies to support instruction in mathematics; create and deliver high quality professional development to teachers; and design and implement activities which encourage students to remain engaged in mathematics learning. " This report offers an examination of the importance of high-quality teachers and influential factors in the development of such teachers for increasing student achievement.
David Burghardt, Michael Hacker (2007). Engineering Professional Development. National Symposium on Professional Development for Engineering a.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14157
Abstract: "The Math Science Technology Education Partnership (MSTP, 2003) is one of the NSF MSP-targeted projects that has as its primary mission the improvement of middle school mathematics instruction and student learning in mathematics, science, and technology education classes. It is the only MSP project that uses engineering design as one of its key elements. The thesis of the project was simple: with more instructional time devoted to mathematics, and with mathematics taught with current pedagogical practice, student learning should improve. As part of the MSTP Project, we have been refining professional development for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers, with a particularly strong focus on mathematics and science teachers. The paper will provide an overview of the three-year evolution in STEM professional development and a detailed examination of the current state."
Jacob Clark Blickenstaff, Daniel M. Hanley (2007). Implementing and Evaluating Reformed Science Curricula for Higher Education and Professional Development Settings. NARST.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14237
Abstract: "This paper describes the implementation of new curricula in biology and geology with preservice teachers at several higher educational institutions and with inservice teachers at summer professional developments.

We present the impact of theses inquiry-based science curricula on:

1) Participants' content knowledge in science,

2) Participants' understanding and attitudes about inquiry-based science teaching and learning, and

3) Participants' understanding of their learning process (metacognition)."

Phil C. Clark, Marilyn Carlson, Kevin Moore (2007). Documenting the Emergence of "Speaking with Meaning" as a Sociomathematical Norm in Professional Learning Community Discourse. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the North American Cha.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/19703
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to describe the sociomathematical norm of speaking with meaning. Speaking with meaning reflects the type of mathematical communication expected when a group of individuals are engaged in problem solving. We observed the emergence of this norm in professional learning communities comprised of mathematics and science teachers and use this data to illustrate its usefulness.
Linda Clinard (2009). Early Childhood Educators Become Collaborative Leaders Integrating and Implementing Math, Science, and Literacy Strategies with Children and Families. UC Irvine-Center for Educational Partnerships-FOCUS! Project.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/18108
Abstract: The 2003-2007 "PreKindergarten/ Kindergarten FOCUS! Science, Mathematics, and Reading Training Schools (SMARTS) Leadership Institute" (PreK/K FOCUS!SMARTS) was a unique component of the University of California-Irvine FOCUS! (Faculty Outreach Collaborations Uniting Scientists, Students, and the Schools) project, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 2002. A major goal of the UCI FOCUS! project was to address the national challenge to improve the quality, quantity and diversity of the teacher workforce in mathematics and science through a partnership joining the efforts of teachers and administrators in three PreK-12 school districts in Southern California collaborating with university Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) faculty and staff and professional development leaders in the UCI Center for Educational Partnerships. This paper highlights professional literature and research documents which emphasize the importance of integrating science, math, and literacy in PreK-12 learning environments. Content, resources, early childhood leaders, and researchers introduced during the four years of the PreK/K FOCUS!SMARTS Leadership Institute are highlighted. Six former participants share reflections demonstrating how Key Features of the National Science Foundation Math Science Program were addressed: (1) Partnership-driven; (2) Teacher Quality, Quantity, and Diversity; (3) Challenging Courses and Curricula; (4) Evidence-Based Design and Outcomes; (5) Institutional Change and Sustainability. "Other Lessons Learned: Parent Involvement" and "Next Steps" provide suggestions for educators, community leaders, and policymakers to consider in future planning.
Rachel Cochran, John Mayer, Bernadette Mullins (2007). The Impact of Inquiry-Based Mathematics Courses on Content Knowledge and Classroom Practice. RUME Conference.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14119
Abstract: "This study includes middle grades teachers participating in the first of a series of inquiry-based mathematics content courses as well as pre-service teachers enrolled in an inquiry-based university course. A variety of data sources (including objective assessment, performance assessment, portfolios, a behavioral checklist, classroom observations and participant surveys) are used to provide a comprehensive picture of participants as learners and teachers of mathematics. This paper describes changes in participants' content knowledge and classroom practice."
AnneMarie M. Conley, Stuart Karabenick, Juliane Blazevski, Jeanne Friedel, David Pagni (2005). Beyond Achievement: Motivation-related Evidence from a Partnership Between a Targeted Project (TASEL-M) and a RETA (MSP-MAP). MSP Evaluation Summit.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/12693
Abstract: "Our evaluation summit presentation will inform discussions about student learning and participation with data from the first year of our collaboration on student motivation and how it changes over time. In addition, we will discuss how early findings are influencing project design and professional development by showing how data are being presented to teachers in ways that encourage dialogue about change in practice."
D. Davis (2009). Placing the MSP Program's Institute Partnerships In a Career Development Context. .
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23952
Abstract:
Sean Delaney, Deborah Loewenberg Ball, Heather Hill, Stephen Schilling, Deborah Zopf (2008). Adapting U. S. measures of "Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching" for use in Ireland. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17816
Abstract: This article describes a study in which measures of mathematical knowledge for teaching developed in the United States were adapted to measure mathematical knowledge for teaching in Ireland. When adapting the measures it was not assumed that the mathematical knowledge used by Irish and U.S. teachers is the same. Instead psychometric and interview-based methods were used to determine a correspondence between the constructs being measured, and ensure the integrity of item performance in the Irish context. The study found overlap between the knowledge that is used to teach in both Ireland and the United States, and that the items tapped into this knowledge. However, specific findings confirm the usefulness of conducting extensive checks on the validity of items used in cross-national contexts. The process of adaptation is described to provide guidance for others interested in using the items to measure mathematical knowledge for teaching outside the United States. The process also enabled the authors to raise questions about the assumptions that lie behind the practice-based construct of mathematical knowledge for teaching.
Directorate for Education and Human Resources (2007). National Science Foundation Impact Report on Math and Science Partnership Program. NSF.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13922
Abstract: "The National Science Foundation (NSF) has released its first national impact report assessing the NSF Math and Science Partnership (MSP) program, which was established in 2002 to integrate the work of higher education with K-12 to strengthen and reform mathematics and science education. The document reports progress on improving teacher quality, quantity and diversity; developing challenging courses and curricula; emphasizing evidence-based design and outcomes; and promoting institutional change. It highlights examples of partnerships at all levels of education in communities across the country, and outlines impacts on student proficiency and benefits of professional development for teachers."
Directorate for Education and Human Resources (2010). National Impact Report: Math and Science Partnership Program. National Science Foundation.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/20607
Abstract: Strengthening America by advancing academic achievement in mathematics and science
"The National Science Foundation (NSF) has released its second national impact report for the NSF Math and Science Partnership (MSP) program, which was established in 2002 to integrate the work of higher education with K-12 to strengthen and reform mathematics and science education. The document identifies progress on improving teacher quality, quantity and diversity; developing challenging courses and curricula; emphasizing evidence-based design and outcomes; and promoting institutional change. The report highlights examples of partnerships at all levels of education in communities across the country, and includes examples of positive impacts for students and benefits of professional development for teachers." Related Document: MSP Impact Report, Jan. 2007
Deborah Donovan, Carolyn Landel (2007). Impact of a Multi-Institutional Curriculum Development Project on Disciplinary Science Faculty. NARST.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14235
Abstract: "This study addresses the impact of a multi-institutional collaboration among disciplinary science faculty to develop undergraduate content courses for future elementary teachers in biology and geology. We report evidence of faculty change in three key areas: (1) Knowledge and beliefs about science teaching and learning; (2) Knowledge and beliefs about K12 teachers and teaching; and (3) Knowledge and beliefs about collaborative practices of effective groups. We also describe evidence of institutional changes initiated and implemented by the faculty as a consequence of the curriculum development project."
Mark Ellis, Jose Contreras, Armando Martinez-Cruz (2009). The Mathematical Preparation of Prospective Elementary Teachers: Reflections from Solving an Interesting Problem. IUMPST: The Journal. Vol 2 (Pedagogy).
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24194
Abstract: "Problem solving tasks offer valuable opportunities to strengthen prospective elementary teachers' knowledge of and disposition toward mathematics, providing them with new experiences doing mathematics. Mathematics educators can influence future instruction by modeling effective pedagogical strategies that engage students in making sense of processes of mathematical reasoning. What follows is a description of a well-designed task and the role played by one mathematics educator in engaging prospective teachers in processes of mathematical reasoning. It is hoped that this description can shed light on some general ideas about the design and implementation of problem solving tasks in courses for future elementary teachers."
Cheryl Farmer, David Allen, Leema Berland, Richard Crawford, Lisa Guerra (2012). Engineer Your World: An Innovative Approach to Developing a High School Engineering Design Course. ASEE Annual Conference.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25094
Abstract: "As standards for K-12 engineering learning emerge with the development of the Next Generation Science Standards, the nation's school systems will likely struggle with the question of whether engineering should be employed as a tool for teaching science and mathematics content (i.e., embedded in science and mathematics courses) or treated as a unique discipline in which science and mathematics are employed as tools for solving design challenges (i.e., offered as a standalone course). Acting on the belief that the latter paradigm is a more appropriate depiction of engineering, the UTeachEngineering project at The University of Texas undertook to demonstrate how rigorous engineering content can be deployed in secondary classrooms by developing a year-long high school engineering course built on a foundation of solid research in the learning sciences, couched in the context of a rigorous engineering design process and scaffolded to build engineering skills and habits of mind. This paper explains why UTeachEngineering, a program initially designed to prepare pre-service and in-service educators to teach design-based engineering courses at the secondary level, shifted focus early in the project to developing, piloting, evaluating and refining such a course. It describes the target student population for the course, details the engineering development work required, describes the research- and practice-based principles upon which pedagogical decisions are based, and offers a view into the course content. Finally, it describes the piloting of the course in a small number of Texas high schools during the 2011-2012 academic year, discusses how feedback from this pilot is informing course revisions, and outlines plans for leveraging a partnership with NASA to expand implementation of the revised course and pilot a new teacher mentorship model in 2012-2013."
William Firestone, M. Cecilia Martinez (2006). Districts, Teacher Leaders, and Distributed Leadership: Changing Institutional Practice. In Press, Leadership and Policy in Schools.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13058
Abstract: "The growing interest in distributed leadership reflects an effort to reconceptualize leadership in schools by exploring how leadership is spread across a variety of roles and to explore the process of leadership. Using case studies of four schools in three districts, this paper explores how leadership is distributed in school districts and asks about the role of teacher leaders in particular. It proposes that teacher leaders and districts can share three leadership tasks: procuring and distributing materials, monitoring improvement, and developing people. The district and teacher leaders play complementary roles. Districts tend to be distant forces, and teacher leaders are more personal. How effective teacher leaders do at people development will depend on the time they have, the knowledge they have, and their monitoring responsibility. These conditions depend partly on their administrative support. We suggest that districts may have more opportunity to influence teaching practice than past research had indicated."
William Firestone, M. Cecilia Martinez, Terrie Polovsky (2006). Teaching Mathematics and Science to English Language Learners: The Experience of Four New Jersey Elementary Schools. NJ MSP (Unpublished Paper).
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13070
Abstract: This paper explores the challenges of teaching math and science to English language learners (ELLs) and some approaches to addressing those challenges identified in four schools serving ELLs working with the New Jersey Math Science Partnership. We first describe some of the challenges of teaching ELLs and the variety of practices used by ELL teachers. We then explore three factors affecting those practices: the knowledge and beliefs of ELL teachers, district policies, and the impact of federal and state testing policies as interpreted locally. We suggest that the more successful teachers have a command of the academic as well as social language of the students they teach. Moreover, local responses to national policies may be increasing attention to mathematics but they may be encouraging the use of instructional strategies like vocabulary drill that may not have lasting learning benefits.
Brian Frank, Natasha Speer (2012). Building Knowledge for Teaching: Three Cases of Physics Graduate Students. Physics Education Research Conference.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25590
Abstract: "Over the past two decades education researchers have demonstrated that various types of knowledge, including pedagogical content knowledge, influence teachers' instructional practices and their students' learning opportunities. Findings suggest that by engaging in the work of teaching, teachers acquire knowledge of how students think, but the education research community has not yet captured this learning as it occurs. We examined whether novice physics instructors can develop such knowledge via the activities of attending to student work and have identified several mechanisms that supported instructors in building this knowledge. We analyzed data from interviews with physics graduate teaching assistants as they examined and discussed students' written work. During those discussions, some instructors appeared to develop new knowledge--either about students' thinking or about the physics content--and others did not. We compare and contrast three cases representing a range of outcomes and identify factors that enabled some instructors to build new knowledge."
Michael Garet, Meredith Ludwig, Kwang Suk Yoon, Andrew Wayne, Beatrice Birman, Anthony Milanowski (2011). Making Professional Development More Strategic: A Conceptual Model for District Decision-Makers. .
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25386
Abstract: "In this paper, we will address three concerns about PD as it currently operates in school districts, outlining the complexity of the problem:
  • Decentralized operations within large school districts and inadequate resources in small districts have led to the fragmentation of PD.
  • PD often is expensive, but there are few tools to document its cost and yield.
  • PD is not linked to teacher evaluation or ongoing policies of accountability for student performance.
This paper provides a framework for districts to manage this complexity and to use the considerable resources expended on PD in a more purposeful, strategic, and effective manner. Section I describes the current state of PD in districts. Section II discusses lessons from the literature regarding ways to make PD strategic and systematic. This lays the groundwork for three sections that present three strategic approaches to PD:
  • Section III discusses PD that focuses on improving the effectiveness of individual teachers.
  • Section IV discusses PD that focuses on building school capacity to identify and solve problems of teaching and learning.
  • Section V discusses PD that focuses on supporting the implementation of curricula, assessments, and other programs adopted by the district."
Serigne Gningue, Roger Peach, Barbara Schroder (2013). Developing Effective Mathematics Teaching: Assessing Content and Pedagogical Knowledge, Student-Centered Teaching, and Student Engagement. The Mathematics Enthusiast.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/26044
Abstract: "The Mathematics Teacher Transformation Institutes (MTTI) program attempts to develop math teacher leaders in part by providing content, inquiry and leadership courses aimed at making them more effective teachers. We assessed progress by observing teacher leaders' teaching practices, and encouraging them to introduce or extend student-centered pedagogy in their classrooms. We found there was little relationship between our measures of mathematics content knowledge and student-centered pedagogy. But teachers who employed student-centered pedagogy tended to have more highly engaged math students in their classrooms."
Bruna Irene Grimberg, Edith Gummer (2013). Teaching Science From Cultural Points Of Intersection. Journal of Research in Science Teaching.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25592
Abstract: "This study focuses on a professional development program for science teachers near or on American Indian reservations in Montana. This program was framed by culturally relevant pedagogy premises and was characterized by instructional strategies and content foci resulting from the intersection between three cultures: tribal, science teaching, and science. The study employs a quasi-experimental design and quantitative methods to examine the impact of the program on teachers' practice and beliefs, and to determine the relationship between student-centered equity-focused instruction and students' science test score gains. Results of the analyses indicate that after 2 years in the program teachers changed their teaching practices and beliefs about their ability to teach science and to implement equitable instruction in a way that positively impacted students' performance. Using a multiple regression analysis it was found that gains in teacher beliefs about their ability to implement equitable strategies and the increase of teaching strategies that prompt students to make connections between science and their real-life issues significantly explained the 36.7% of the variance of student science test scores gains in treatment classrooms. No significant changes in beliefs or teaching strategies were found for comparison teachers. The results obtained from this study contribute to the identification of characteristics of a professional development program that positively impacted the science teaching of American Indian students." NOTE:The link above will take you to an abstract page. To view the full-text for this article, you will need to either sign-in with the appropriate membership or purchase this article.
Thomas R. Guskey, Kwang Suk Yoon (2009). What Works in Professional Development?. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(7).
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25383
Abstract: "A massive study of professional development yielded some unexpected findings regarding professional development and its links to student learning. This research synthesis confirms the difficulty of translating professional development into student achievement gains despite the intuitive and logical connection. Those responsible for planning and implementing professional development must learn how to critically assess and evaluate the effectiveness of what they do."
Michael Hacker, David Burghardt (2008). Addressing Issues Related to Technology and Engineering. The Technology Teacher.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24541
Abstract: "This article presents an interview with Michael Hacker and David Burghardt, codirectors of Hoftra University's Center for Technological Literacy. Hacker and Burghardt address issues related to technology and engineering. They argue that teachers need to be aware of the problems kids are facing, and how to present these problems in an engaging context."
James E. Hamos, Kathleen B. Bergin, Daniel Maki, Lance C. Perez, Joan T. Prival, Daphne Y. Rainey, Ginger H. Rowell, Elizabeth VanderPutten (2009). Opening the Classroom Door: Professional Learning Communities In the Math and Science Partnership Program. The Science Educator.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/19667
Abstract: "Students come marching into the classroom and take their seats ... the bell rings ... the teacher closes the door and thinks, "This is my time with the kids. I have a lesson plan that I prepared, and they'll learn what I have to offer." The teacher never talks to other teachers about what to teach or how to teach, and the only time that anyone visits the classroom is when an administrator comes to evaluate the teacher once a year. Although such a reality typified many classrooms in the 20th century, in the 1990s and the first decade of this 21st century, a new exemplar of teacher professional development has evolved--the professional learning community (PLC). This paper looks at how PLCs have become an operational approach for professional development with potential to de-isolate the teaching experience in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We offer a short synopsis of the intellectual origins of PLCs, provide multiple examples of PLCs employed in projects funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through its Math and Science Partnership (MSP) program, and consider benefits for varied aspects of the teaching and learning environment."
Sandra Ham, William Firestone, Rosanne Hansel (2006). Early Childhood Education Professional Development Component Study. NJ MSP (Unpublished Paper).
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13068
Abstract: Begun in October 2002, the New Jersey Math Science Partnership (NJ MSP) was a five-year, $12.3 million mathematics and science education reform initiative federally funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NJ MSP involved a multifaceted collaboration of two university partners (Rutgers University and Rowan University) and 11 partner districts that span several northern, central, and southern geographic counties in New Jersey. The partner districts collectively serve over 75,000 students and, in their combined 109 schools, employ approximately 4,000 teachers of math and science. The NJ MSP was one of only two MSP projects nationally that incorporated a special focus on math and science learning in early childhood education (ECE). A full-time Early Childhood (EC) Specialist was hired by Rutgers to oversee the ECE professional development component. In September 2005, the National Science Foundation (the funding source for the NJ MSP) determined that the NJ MSP would phase out during its fourth year of implementation (by May 30, 2006) and requested that a study be conducted on the ECE component.

Study Design. The study focused specifically on the "learning communities" professional development series that was implemented in the final year of the NJ MSP initiative, from July 2005 to May 2006. Purposes of the study were to (1) describe the design rationale, goals, and objectives of the ECE component; (2) describe the level of district participation in the ECE professional development series and the characteristics of participating districts; (3) describe the implementation structure of the professional development series; (4) provide evidence on the ways in which NJ MSP met its ECE professional development objectives for improving teachers' knowledge of the exploration of math and science content, improving teachers' dispositions towards math and science, and equipping teachers with strategies to assess and support the translation of science content into the learning environment; and (5) offer lessons learned from the NJ MSP ECE component that may serve to inform other initiatives that seek to build teachers' capacity to translate math and science concepts into preK learning environments.
Carl Hanssen (2006). The Milwaukee Mathematics Partnership: A path model for evaluating teacher and student effects. MSP Evaluation Summit II.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13451
Abstract: Alternative statistical models have been proposed for evaluating the effects of the Milwaukee Mathematics Partnership (MMP) on teachers and students. These models have been articulated in the form of hierarchical linear models that incorporate various combinations of student, teacher, classroom, and school-level variables. For example, one HLM approach would nest students within teachers, within schools to estimate the effect of MMP activities on student achievement.

Each attempt to estimate the impact of the MMP on teachers and students, however, share a common, underlying hypothesis: MMP activities, e.g., teacher professional development are impacting teacher mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT), which is in turn impacting classroom practice, leading to improved student achievement. This paper steps away from the prior HLM analyses and explores these relationships using structural equation modeling techniques.

The path model proposed by this paper hypothesizes relationships between teacher education, teacher experience, professional development hours, mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT), classroom practice, and student achievement (see Figure 1). We hypothesize that education, experience, and professional development hours are predictors of MKT and classroom practice. We further hypothesize that MKT and classroom practice are predictors of student achievement.

Given the exploratory nature of this work, the purpose of this paper is to present the results from an initial attempt to apply path analysis techniques to the problem of linking MMP activities to teacher performance and student achievement. We expect this work will be refined in the remaining years of the MMP evaluation. As such, in addition to presenting the results from this work, recommendations for improving the path model, as well as the implications of this work for evaluation are offered.
William Haver (2009). The Journal of Mathematics and Science Special Issue: MSP Institutes. Journal of Mathematics and Science.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/20021
Abstract: The Mathematics and Science Partnership (MSP) Institutes supported by the National Science Foundation's MSP program are designed to provide high quality professional development to the participating teachers. Perhaps more importantly they serve as models and standards for professional development nationwide and conduct research on effective and innovative ways to increase teachers' content and pedagogical content knowledge and to improve student learning. The work of the Institutes is being disseminated through the MSPnet, and it is anticipated that at the conclusion of each project the research findings will be described in scholarly publications. In addition, we believe that the publication in this Special Issue of the "Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Explorations" of refereed papers describing work in progress and preliminary research findings will have great value to the field.
Ruth Heaton, David Hartman (2006). A Study of Middle Level Students' Mathematical Understanding Using Alternative Assessments. MSP Evaluation Summit II.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13452
Abstract: "The ultimate goal of any professional development opportunities for teachers ought to be the improvement of student learning. It is a goal of the Math in the Middle Institute Partnership (M2) to examine the link between increasing teachers' capacity through professional development and raising the level of student achievement. There are a number of other researchers who have pursued similar lines of inquiry (Cohen & Hill, 2000; Desimone, Porter, Garet Yoon, & Beirman, 2002; Swanson & Stevenson, 2002). This project faces the unique challenge of trying to study change in student learning as a result of professional development offered through the Math in the Middle Institute Partnership to 96 Nebraska teachers spread across more than 77,000 square miles, teaching in 47 different school districts and 67 different schools in a context where there exists no common statewide assessment system. This study presents preliminary findings from one part of the Math in the Middle Institute Partnership's research agenda, the Math in the Middle Institute Partnership's initial efforts to create and administer a common assessment to Math in the Middle teachers' middle school students. The study includes both quantitative and qualitative analyses of the variation of students' responses to the assessment given in Fall 2005 as well as a critique of the assessment problems themselves."
Ruth Heaton, Jim Lewis, Michelle Homp, Steven Dunbar, Wendy Smith (2013). Challenging Yet Accessible Mathematics Courses for Middle Level Teachers. Resources for Preparing Middle School Mathematics Teachers.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25558
Abstract: This article describes three challenging yet accessible mathematics courses designed especially for middle school teachers and offered by the Department of Mathematics at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL). The descriptions found in this article are based on the courses as we have taught them as part of the Math in the Middle Institute Partnership (M2), a National Science Foundation Math Science Partnership (MSP) program that works with practicing teachers. As a grant funded MSP, we take seriously the responsibility to share information about our program and the courses we have created. Readers are directed to our web site for a wealth of information about our program and specifically to our course materials for a link to additional information about the courses described in this article as well as other courses that we offer.
Melissa Hedges, DeAnn Huinker, Meghan Steinmeyer (2005). Unpacking Division to Build Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge. Teaching Children Mathematics.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24231
Abstract: "The mathematical knowledge needed for teaching differs from what is needed for other occupations in that the knowledge must be usable in the practice of teaching whether selecting instructional tasks, representing ideas, orchestrating a class discussion, or evaluating students verbal or written responses (Ball 2003). This requires the unpacking of ones compressed knowledge and bringing it to the surface for examination. One approach to surfacing this knowledge is by engaging teachers in core tasks and then using their own work as sites for discussion. In particular, we have found that asking teachers to generate their own alternative computational strategies productive in revealing strengths and gaps in their current understandings. Then their packages of mathematical knowledge can be further developed and become more accessible as a mathematical resource for teaching."
Martha Henry, Keith Murray, Katherine Phillips (2007). Meeting the Challenge of STEM Classroom Observation in Evaluating Teacher Development Projects: A Comparison of Two Widely Used Instruments. American Evaluation Association 2007 National Conference, Baltim.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14975
Abstract: Observation of classroom lessons is an important if problematic component of educational evaluation. Where programs aim at teacher professional development, student performance enhancement, curricular change, or implementation of reform teaching methods, direct observation is crucial to validating and explaining results. However, the challenges of funding and maintaining uniformly trained observers and optimally timing observations have led some evaluators to avoid this evaluative technique. Of greatest importance is the selection of an observational instrument that captures information across domains of interest with sufficient validity and reliability. This presentation offers an analysis and comparison of the two most often used observational instruments in math and science K-12 classrooms. These instruments " Inside the Classroom Observation and Analytic Protocol and the Reform Teaching Observation Protocol " evidence not only similarities but marked differences in design, focus, documentation and observer skill requirements. The authors offer recommendations for potential users to enhance usefulness and avoid pitfalls.
Molly Hershey-Arista, Lisa Schiavo, Holly Bozeman, Gary Silverstein, Joy Frechtling (2013). Compendium of MSP MIS Data for Comprehensive, Targeted, and Institute Projects: 2002-03 Through 2010-11 School Years. Westat.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25505
Abstract: The Math and Science Partnership Management Information System (MSP MIS) presents annual findings from the MSP MIS for Comprehensive, Targeted, and Institute MSP projects for 2002-03 through the 2010-11 school years. Key Findings include: - What organizations were involved in the MSP program? - What were the contributions of the individuals involved in the design and delivery of MSP activities? - What MSP activities were targeted to IHE recipients? - What MSP activities were targeted to K-12 recipients? - What challenges did MSP projects face?
Heather Hill (2007). Mathematical knowledge of middle school teachers: Implication for the No Child Left Behind Policy initiative. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17809
Abstract: This article explores middle school teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching and the relationship between such knowledge and teachers' subject matter preparation, cerlification type, teaching experience, and their students 'poverty status. The author administered multiple-choice measures to a nationally representative sample of teachers and found that those with more mathematical course work, a subject-specific certification, and high school teaching experience tended to possess higher levels of teaching-specific mathematical knowledge. However; teachers with strong mathematical knowledge for teaching are, like those with full credentials and preparation, distributed unequally across the population of U.S. students. Specifically. more affluent students are more likely to encounter more knowledgeable teachers. The author dtccusses the implications of this for current U.S. policies aimed at improving teacher quality.
Heather Hill, Deborah Loewenberg Ball, Hyman Bass, Merrie Blunk, Katie Brach, Charalambos Charalambous, Yaa Cole, Carolyn Dean, Sean Delaney, Sam Eskelson, Imani Masters Goffney, Jennifer Lewis, Geoffrey Phelps, Laurie Sleep, Mark Thames, Deborah Zopf (2010). Measuring the Mathematical Quality of Instruction. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24221
Abstract: "In this article, we describe a framework and instrument for measuring the mathematical quality of mathematics instruction. In describing this framework, we argue for the separation of the mathematical quality of instruction (MQI), such as the absence of mathematical errors and the presence of sound mathematical reasoning, from pedagogical method. We argue that conceptualizing this key aspect of mathematics classrooms will enable more clarity in mathematics educators' research questions and will facilitate study of the mechanisms by which teacher knowledge shapes instruction and subsequent student learning. The instrument we have developed offers an important first step in demonstrating the viability of the construct."
NOTE: This resource is published on the Springer web site. The link above will take you to an abstract page. To view the full-text for this article, you will need to either sign-in to Springer with the appropriate membership or purchase this article.
Heather Hill, Deborah Loewenberg Ball, Merrie Blunk, Imani Goffney, Brian Rowan (2007). Validating the ecological assumption: The relationship of measure scores to classroom teaching and student learning. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17827
Abstract: "In validating any assessment, a critical question is its relationship to the domain of practice: whether success on the assessment, which is constrained to be either a small sample of the knowledge or even simply an indicator of knowledge needed for a practice, actually predicts proficient performance. Following Kane (2001, 2004), we formulated an assumption and several observable inferences regarding the relationship of our measures of teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching to their actual classroom mathematical work. This assumption is the third detailed in Schilling and Hill (this issue): that the measures capture the content knowledge that teachers need to teach mathematics effectively to students. This paper provides a summary of our attempts to uncover links between our measures, classroom mathematics instruction, and student learning."
Heather Hill, Merrie Blunk, Charalambos Charalambous, Jennifer M. Lewis, Geoffrey Phelps, Laurie Sleep, Deborah Loewenberg Ball (2008). Mathematical knowledge for teaching and the mathematical quality of instruction: An exploratory study. Cognition and Instruction.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17818
Abstract: This study illuminates claims that teachers' mathematical knowledge plays an important role in their teaching of this subject matter. In particular, we focus on teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT), which includes both the mathematical knowledge that is common to individuals working in diverse professions and the mathematical knowledge that is specialized to teaching. We use a series of five case studies and associated quantitative data to detail how MKT is associated with the mathematical quality of instruction. Although there is a significant, strong, and positive association between levels of MKT and the mathematical quality of instruction, we also find that there are a number of important factors that mediate this relationship, either supporting or hindering teachers' use of knowledge in practice.
Heather C. Hill, Brian Rowan, Deborah Loewenberg Ball (2005). Effects of Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching on Student Achievement. American Educational Research Journal.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/11158
Abstract: "Acting on the assumption that improved teacher knowledge will yield gains in student achievement, scholars and policy-makers have focused increasing attention and resources on improving teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching. Content-focused professional development, mathematically-supportive curriculum materials, and redesigned pre-service preparation programs are all examples of this effort. However, few studies have empirically demonstrated that teachers' mathematical knowledge is related to student achievement, especially at the elementary level. Further, existing studies have neglected to explore key questions about how this relationship is constituted.

Using data from students, teachers, and schools participating in a large study of comprehensive school reform, and using novel measures that capture both common and specialized mathematical knowledge for teaching, we explore the degree to which teachers' mathematical knowledge contributes to gains in student achievement. We find a positive effect of teacher mathematical knowledge on first and third graders' gain scores. We investigate the linearity of this relationship, discuss other findings from our models, and suggest implications for policy, professional development, and further research."

Heather Hill, Carolyn Dean, Imani Goffney (2007). Assessing Elemental and Structural Validity: Data from teachers, non-teachers and mathematicians. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17823
Abstract: "Validation efforts typically focus around what, exactly, is measured by an instrument(s), and whether what is measured corresponds to the theoretical domain(s) originally specified. In this paper, we conduct a first analysis into these issues. Our goal is building instruments focused around measuring the mathematical knowledge used in teaching: not only the content that teachers teach to students directly, but also the professional knowledge that helps support the teaching of that content. Following Kane (2001; 2004a) and as reported in Schilling & Hill (this issue), we developed two assumptions and related inferences to represent this thinking, Elemental assumption and Structural assumption. In this paper we describe and address the Elemental assumption of the LMT measures."
Heather Hill, Laurie Sleep, Jennifer Lewis, Deborah Loewenberg Ball (2007). Assessing Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge: What Knowledge Matters and What Evidence Counts?. F. Lester (Ed.), Handbook for Research on Mathematics Education.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17807
Abstract: This chapter reviews and seeks to appraise the myriad ways in which U.S. teachers' knowledge of mathematics has been assessed. It asks: What is measured on tests of teachers' mathematical knowledge? What should be measured? How should it be measured? And how has the evolution of both assessment methods and scholarly thinking about teachers' mathematical knowledge influenced these tests?
Matthew T. Hora (2007). Analyzing Cultural Processes in Higher Education: STEM and Education Faculty Collaboration in Teacher Education. AERA.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14311
Abstract:
"The lack of coordination between STEM and education faculty in teacher preparation is viewed as a crucial breakdown in the system of teacher education. This paper describes findings from a qualitative case study of one Institution of Higher Education (IHE) participating in System-wide Change for All Learners and Educators (SCALE), an NSF-funded Math & Science Partnership project. This research is an embedded case study of a comprehensive university on the West Coast, which employed a grounded theory approach to analyzing interview (N=41) and document data, a framework for Educational Culture Process Analysis, and causal network analysis. At this IHE, bifurcated state regulations and IHE programs governing teacher preparation, differences between STEM and education faculty's ownership of teacher preparation, and strained relations characterized by stereotypes, interacted to create an institutional context that was generally unfavorable. In this context, SCALE created five new opportunities for STEM and education faculty to interact, including a series of professional development workshops led by an education faculty who deftly negotiated STEM faculty concerns that they would be "told how to teach" and given tools that were poorly suited to their courses. Through these interactions SCALE was successful in fostering a nascent "community of practice" of STEM and education faculty, influencing some STEM faculty's pedagogical practices and their perspectives regarding the value of pedagogy and educational research, and changing some structural elements of the teacher preparation program. However, SCALE was unable to influence several factors that invariably shape individual practice and group meaning systems, and continued opportunities for interaction into the future will be needed for this emerging network to become a factor that effectively fosters long-term institutional change."
Matthew T. Hora (2007). Factors Influencing Change Initiatives to Improve K-20 STEM Education at California State University, Dominguez Hills: Final Case Study of SCALE Activities. SCALE Working Paper.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14454
Abstract: "Institutions of Higher Education (IHE) play an important role in math and science education by providing undergraduate instruction, operating teacher training programs, and providing in-service training for K-12 teachers. The National Science Foundation funded System-Wide Change for All Learners (SCALE) project sought to effect change in its partner IHEs by creating a "transformative culture" in IHEs through the creation of "cross-cultural working teams" that worked at the intersections among K-12 districts, colleges of education, and colleges of mathematics, science, and engineering (SCALE, 2005). As part of the SCALE IHE Case Studies line of work, this document provides findings on the effects of the SCALE project, along with the Department of Education-funded Quality Educator Development (QED) project, at the California State University, Dominguez Hills (CSUDH) between May 2004 and May 2007. This case study includes two inter-related accounts of SCALE/QED activities: (a) evaluation findings for each of the SCALE/QED activities undertaken at CSUDH, and (b) exploratory analysis of how specific aspects of the institutional context influenced SCALE/QED activities."
DeAnn Huinker, Janis Freckmann (2009). Linking Principles of Formative Assessment to Classroom Practice. Wisconsin Teacher of Mathematics.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/22143
Abstract: The Milwaukee Mathematics Partnership has been on a journey over several years in moving a large urban district toward implementation of formative assessment in mathematics. This article describes lessons learned and how those lessons lead to a more intentional approach in linking mathematics classroom practice to principles of formative assessment. The Partnership identified ten principles of formative assessment and have been using them as a basis for professional learning and conversations to implement school-wide practices that use assessment for learning.
DeAnn Huinker, Henry Kranendonk, Kevin McLeod, Kimberly Farley (2011). Milwaukee Mathematics Partnership Final Report. .
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25161
Abstract: The Milwaukee Mathematics Partnership (MMP), a comprehensive MSP project, resulted in significant improvement in mathematics achievement for students in the Milwaukee Public Schools, with a substantial achievement gap reduction between the school district and the state. The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee Public Schools, and Milwaukee Area Technical College shared in the leadership for this student success as core partners to this unique collaboration among a large urban district, a four-year urban university, and a two-year technical college. The MMP final report (NSF Grant No. 0314898) includes a summary of project goals, activities, and findings. Also included are appendices on the MMP Continuum of Professional Work for Mathematics and an overview of the MMP Toolkit.
Tracey Hulen (2007). Breaking The Cycle: Integrating The Mathematics Specialist. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Exploratio.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24596
Abstract: "Most elementary teachers receive little or no training in the area of mathematics; much of their training is in language arts. Teachers teach mathematics the way they were taught, which has in turn caused a cycle of teaching isolated skills with little emphasis on conceptual meaning. Implementing Mathematics Specialists into schools as a means of breaking the cycle is ultimately necessary for systematic changes to occur in our educational system. Coincidentally, this has proven to be successful in changing the way many teachers teach language arts. Most elementary schools have a Reading Specialist who works with teachers on using best practices since there has been a recent shift in how language arts are taught. In order for this to occur in mathematics, a Mathematics Specialist is needed in every school. Typically, professional development has meant having an expert standing at the front of the room telling teachers the best way to teach a particular subject area. Changing the face of professional development where teachers are working together by planning, team teaching, and observing best practices at work will allow them to learn from one another."
N.R. Iverson (2005). Mathematics Professional Development That Focuses On Student Achievement: A Parallel Case Example. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Exploratio.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24223
Abstract: "The creation of a PreK-8 Mathematics Specialist credential provides an unprecedented opportunity for Virginia school leaders to improve student achievement in mathematics. If this opportunity is to yield hoped for outcomes, the professional development that supports shifts in teachers' understanding and practice will need to be far more focused, coherent, and job embedded than most current mathematics improvement efforts. This article examines four issues to address this challenge. First, it notes the depth of the changes in knowledge, skills, and beliefs that a substantive move toward National Council of Teachers of Mathematics reform driven and standards-based instruction will require. Next, it presents an integrated model for professional knowledge growth that considers both individual and organizational factors. Third, it examines the prevalence of both individual and organizational factors as described in a study contrasting professional development practices in high poverty Virginia elementary schools that varied markedly in their success in reducing the number of kindergarten children assessed as at risk for reading failure. Concurrently, it outlines features of professional development that support the implementation of effective mathematics improvement efforts. While the knowledge base required for effective reading instruction is different from the knowledge base needed to inculcate best instructional practice in mathematics, the approach to professional development efforts and the role of content specialists in supporting those efforts may provide insight that can help frame mathematics improvement efforts."
Christina L. Jacobs, Sonya N. Martin, Tracey C. Otieno (2007). A Science Lesson Plan Analysis Instrument for Formative and Summative Program Evaluation of a Teacher Education Program. NARST.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14231
Abstract: "In evaluating the success of teacher development programs, measures of teaching practice that are valid, reliable, and scalable are needed. We have developed, validated, and piloted the Science Lesson Plan Analysis Instrument (SLPAI) for quantitative evaluation of teacher-generated multi-day lesson plans. The SLPAI was developed to complement traditional evaluation tools, such as teacher surveys and direct observational protocols, to enable us to capture the extent to which a teacher development program successfully addressed its goals of increasing teacher content and pedagogical knowledge and impacting teaching practice. This paper presents the development and validation of the SLPAI, and demonstrates its use in a pilot study examining teacher change as a result of program instruction. The SLPAI was utilized as a formative assessment, providing baseline information about the teaching practices of incoming program cohorts in order to tailor both pedagogical and content instruction appropriately. The SLPAI was also used to track and describe changes in teaching practice and pedagogical knowledge of teacher participants over time, and thereby provide summative evidence of program effectiveness. We report on the responses of several program instructors to these results, including revisions made to instructional design of their courses."
Christina L. Jacobs, Susan A. Yoon, Tracey C. Otieno (2007). The Effect of University Science Faculty Beliefs on Teaching Practices across Contexts. NARST.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14233
Abstract: "As a central component in efforts toward increasing student interest in scientific studies and careers, the milieu of university science teaching is an important current focus of study; teaching reform efforts that include the level of higher education are of key importance if secondary and elementary science teachers, products of the higher education system, are expected to implement such reforms in their own teaching. The goals of this research were to describe the extent to which university science instructors employ student-centered, inquiry-oriented teaching methods in their courses for undergraduates and in-service teachers, and investigate what factors impact their ability or willingness to implement such reforms in these differing contexts. We addressed these questions using a mixed methods approach which resulted in a multiple case study interpretive study. Patterns in the instructors' responses provided insight into individual attributes and institutional structures that are favorable and unfavorable toward effective science teaching at the higher education level."
Tonya D. Jeffery, Cherie A. Mccollough, Kim Moore (2015). Growing STEM Roots: Preparing Preservice Teachers. Academic Exchange Quarterly.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/31516
Abstract: "The shortage of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) middle school teachers, especially those in low income and high minority schools, is exacerbated by the fact that many of the teachers are not adequately prepared or supported to foster success and interest in science and mathematics (Boyd, Lankford, Loeb, Ronfeldt, & Wyckoff, 2011). This study explored designing teacher preparation with authentic research experiences combined with site- and content-specific professional development. Field based experiences utilized inquiry and other tools to increase content understanding and deepen views of the nature of science. The purpose of this paper is to describe a mixed-methods pilot study investigating elementary and secondary pre-service teachers' mathematics and science content knowledge and conceptions of nature of science following the first year implementation of a science and mathematics site-based professional development program. The key elements of this transformative strategy for bolstering the elementary to middle levels science and mathematics teaching certification pathway for preservice teachers will be discussed. Findings in this study will offer insight regarding fostering and developing preservice teachers' math and science content knowledge and understandings of nature of science in teacher preparation programs."
Joan N. Kaderavek, Tamala North, Regina Rotshtein, Hoangha Dao, Nicholas Liber, Geoff Milewski, Scott C. Molitor, Charlene M. Czerniak (2015). SCIIENCE: The Creation and Pilot Implementation of an NGSS-based Instrument to Evaluate Early Childhood Science Teaching. Studies in Educational Evaluation.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/31941
Abstract: This paper describes the development, testing and implementation of the Systematic Characterization of Inquiry Instruction in Early LearNing Classroom Environments (SCIIENCE). The SCIIENCE instrument was designed to capture best practices outlined in the National Research Council's Framework for K-12 Science Education as they occur within a science lesson. The goals of the SCIIENCE instrument are to (a) assess the quality of science instruction in PK-3 classrooms, (b) capture teacher behaviors and instructional practices that engage students in the lesson, promote scientific studies, encourage higher-level thinking, and (c) provide a feedback mechanism for guiding professional development of PK-3 teachers. Science educators can apply this instrument to teacher behaviors and use the data to improve classroom inquiry instructional methodology.
Stuart Karabenick, AnneMarie Conley (2011). Teacher Motivation for Professional Development. LNC Conference in January 2012, Washington D.C..
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24024
Abstract: Teacher professional development (PD) is an essential feature of instructional interventions in general, and for the improvement of students' math and science learning and achievement in particular. The more motivated teachers are to participate and engage in PD, the more likely they will be to profit from the experience. Teacher motivation in PD is directly linked with classroom enactment of PD approaches, content and skills, and it is indirectly related to increasing the likelihood of desirable student outcomes. Informed by theory and empirical evidence from research on student and teacher motivation, and by a model of teacher motivation to participate in PD (PDM), a national study of teachers (n = 552) examined the level of PDM, teachers' experiences in PD, and their perceived benefits of PD. Also examined were how perceived experiences and benefits were associated with features of PD programs and teacher and contextual factors.
Paul Kehle, Dan Maki (2005). Implementing Comprehensive Multifaceted Professional Development:Lessons Learned from University and K-12 Partnerships. Indiana University.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/10673
Abstract: With the support of a National Science Foundation (NSF) Mathematics Science Partnership (MSP) grant, Indiana University (IU) is currently in its third year of expanding a successful large-scale, middle school, professional development program to include elementary and secondary school mathematics teachers. Five distinct components work together to realize the partnership's goals: (1) elementary school professional development, (2) secondary school professional development, (3) middle school liaison-teacher leadership development, (4) administrator awareness, and (5) pre-service mathematics teacher education. This paper addresses conceptual and logistical challenges involved in such work, and shares our insights and strategies for meeting them. The challenges include participant recruitment, scheduling of in-service activity, compensation and/or continuing education credit, assessment of professional development, textbook adoption cycles, vertical articulation of content and pedagogy across all K-12 grades, administrator support, teacher leadership development, and resources for implementation.
Paul Kehle, Dan Maki, Anderson Norton, Dale Nowlin (2005). Design and Implementation of Linking Courses: Connecting College Mathematics with High School Mathematics for Pre-service Teachers. Indiana University.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/10671
Abstract: A collaborative effort among the Indiana University (IU) Mathematics Department, the IU School of Education, and local high school mathematics teachers resulted in the design of four one-credit courses that undergraduates take in conjunction with courses in calculus, abstract algebra, mathematical modeling, and probability & statistics. The primary objective of these linking courses is to help undergraduate pre-service mathematics teachers make connections among the content of their undergraduate mathematics courses, the content and pedagogy of the grades 6-12 mathematics curriculum, and standards for K-12 mathematics education. We seek to cultivate a fuller, more relevant understanding of the deeper mathematical ideas contained in the undergraduate courses. Examination of the undergraduates' thinking about the concepts encountered in these courses leads to both content and pedagogical gains. This paper addresses the challenges, solutions, and pros and cons entailed in this approach to improving the quality of future mathematics teachers.
M. M. Kennedy, S. Ahn, J. Choi (2006). Value Added by Teacher Education. Handbook of Research on Teacher Education.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/12688
Abstract: A synthesis of research on the relationship of teachers' educational background to the mathematics achievement of their students.

Prepared by the Causal Inference in Instructional Workforce Research MSP Project.
Thomas R. Koballa, Jr., Michael J. Dias, Jennifer Lance Atkinson (2009). Science Conference Presenters' Images of Inquiry. School Science and Mathematics.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24572
Abstract: "Inquiry-focused professional development and conceptions of inquiry held by eight professional development leaders were investigated within the context of a state science teacher conference. The prominent session format involved session leaders modeling classroom experiences. In all sessions, classroom inquiry was portrayed as a teacher-guided activity with the primary goal being to increase motivation for engaging students in classroom inquiry. The leaders' conceptualized inquiry primarily as a teaching approach with various goals, characteristics, and potential barriers. The findings of this study provide evidence of how inquiry, a prominent feature of science education reform, was portrayed in sessions at a conference sponsored by a state affiliate of the National Science Teachers Association and thought about by persons who led these sessions. The findings have implications for teacher learning from conference-based professional development and its potential influence on science teacher thinking and practice."
Harriet Lamm, Lee Sloan (2006). Focused Mathematics Professional Development Results in Student Achievement Gains. MSP Evaluation Summit II.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13478
Abstract: The Alliance for the Improvement of Mathematics Skills -- PreK-16 (AIMS), funded fall 2002 by NSF, has four goals, one of which focuses on teacher professional development and its affects on student achievement. The partnership consists of two institutions of higher education and nine independent school districts (ISDs).
    The focus:
  • Did our research design produce student achievement results above those expected from no additional activity?
  • Did a focus on TEXTEAMS with teacher follow-up produce higher mathematics achievement?
  • Does the data support these assumptions?

Results from the first four years of focused professional development offered to the mathematics teachers of the partners have been examined. Offerings were based on the Texas Teachers Empowered for Achievement in Mathematics and Science (TEXTEAMS) and the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). In addition to the workshops, the AIMS Mathematics Specialists have provided coaching, mentoring, lesson modeling, curriculum alignment, lesson planning, teaching strategies, and learning styles. Grade specific sessions have been offered to improve workshop application and adaptations.

Preliminary data indicates increases in the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) percentage passing as well as in actual numbers of students passing at the met standard percentage. Passing percentages from area districts and the region have been examined to determine the effects of the focus professional development. The panel recommendation passing percentages were collected to provide a common passing score basis for all years.

Comparisons of Year One and Year Four data indicates all partner districts increased in passing percentages ranging from 8% to 24% for the sum of all grades tested. Only two districts had decreases when examining individual grade level percentages. Individual details will be provided in tables. Each district's data allows the cohorts of students to be followed as they move from grade to grade. The overall trend appears to be increases in the numbers passing, the percent passing, or in both. Enrollment in Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II, and all pre-calculus courses (pre-calculus, statistics, etc.) has increased. Because of the amount of data, details and data tables will be provided in the full paper.
Matthew Larson, Wendy Smith (2013). Distributed Leadership: Key to Improving Primary Students' Mathematical Knowledge. Journal of Mathematics Education at Teachers College.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25614
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present the findings of a quantitative study focused on primary mathematics teachers who participated in an intensive professional development program and then had leadership responsibility for the implementation of a new primary mathematics curriculum in their district. The study examines the effect of the professional development on teachers' and students' mathematical knowledge. Results indicate that effective implementation of a new curriculum can improve students' mathematical knowledge, but that the effect of the curriculum implementation on student mathematical knowledge is enhanced when teachers improve their mathematical knowledge for teaching and are simultaneously involved in the leadership activities of the curriculum implementation.
Della R. Leavitt, Robert D. Babst, Jarrett L. Lampkin, Patricia A. Whitford, Marjory F. Palius, Ryan Donegan, Michael Smith (2013). Teachers Create a Professional Learning Community to be a Place of their Own. Mid-Atlantic Education Review.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/26528
Abstract: "In Spring, 2012, seven New Jersey middle school mathematics teachers volunteered to lead an afterschool Professional Learning Community. The teachers set the meeting format, selected topics, and rotated facilitation of six 90-minute sessions. A university researcher, working within a National Science Foundation-sponsored Mathematics/Science Partnership, designed the project to investigate how, if at all, these activities would enhance teachers' leadership. The researcher videotaped the teachers' meetings, elicited written reflections, conducted interviews, and analyzed these data. Emergent themes included cohesiveness, commitment, focus on practice, respectful participation in controversies, changes in confidence and leadership. All seven teachers planned to continue meeting during the 2012-2013 school year." This online discussion may also interest you:
PLCs that bridge research and practice

Patricia Maloney, Penelope Earley, Luz Mangurian, Richard Millman (2007). Making Good on Our Word: STEM Faculty and K-16 Partnerships, AACTE Presentation. AACTE Annual Meeting.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14028
Abstract: "In K-16 partnerships, the National Science Foundation Math Science Partnerships provide substantial support to improve of teaching and learning in K-16 and higher education, highlighting evidence-based research to promote partnership."
Jill Marshall, Leema Berland (2012). Developing a Vision of Pre-College Engineering Education. Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25086
Abstract: "We report the results of a study focused on identifying and articulating an "epistemic foundation" underlying a pre-collegiate focus on engineering. We do so in the context of UTeachEngineering (UTE), a program supported in part by funding by the National Science Foundation and designed to develop a model approach to address the systematic challenges facing this workfrom identifying learning goals, to certifying pre- and in-service teachers for engineering courses to developing a research-based high school engineering course. Given the systemic nature of the UTE approach, this model is positioned to serve as a starting point to further the conversation around two of the National Academy of Engineering Committee on Standards in K-12 Engineering Education (2010) central recommendations for future work in this area: (1) Identification of core ideas in engineering, and (2) creation of guidelines for instructional materials. Toward that end, project faculty and staff were interviewed and/or surveyed about their views on the goals and outcomes of engineering and engineering teacher education, as well as strategies design to reach these goals and the warrants for them. Data were analyzed following a grounded protocol. The results align well with previous efforts to identify core engineering concepts, skills, and dispositions for K-12 education (National Academy of Engineering Committee on Standards in K-12 Engineering Education, 2010, Annex to Chapter 3)."
Virginia Mathematics and Science Coalition Task Force (2005). Mathematics Specialists Task Force Report. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Exploratio.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23911
Abstract: "Efforts to support Teacher Specialist programs are taking root across the Commonwealth of Virginia as school divisions look for ways to raise student achievement by improving mathematics instruction. For the purposes of this report, we will define instruction as what teachers do. Instruction consists of the interactions involving teachers, students, and content. To frame our work and to guide our research we asked the question, "What interventions or deliberate efforts to improve instruction will be enhanced by a Mathematics Teacher Specialist, and what preparation is necessary to take on this role?"
Stephen Meyer, John Sutton (2006). Linking Teacher Characteristics to Student Mathematics Outcomes. MSP Evaluation Summit II.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13471
Abstract: "The Math in the Middle Institute Partnership (M2) is designed to improve K-12 student mathematics achievement by creating sustainable partnerships among individuals at each of the following entities: the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, regional Educational Service Units (ESUs), and local school districts. These partnerships are designed to educate and support teams of outstanding middle-level mathematics teachers (Grades 5-8) who will become intellectual leaders in their schools, districts, and ESUs. M2 is particularly committed to improving the capacity of rural teachers, schools, and districts. The design of M2 is grounded in evidencebased research on learning, teaching, and teacher professional development. M2 involves multiple cohorts of teachers, each of which consists of approximately 30 lead teachers.
...preliminary analyses suggest positive effects of participation in M2 on a range of teacher outcomes, including ratings of preparedness and confidence, philosophy of mathematics teaching and learning, instructional emphasis, use of assessment, and professional interaction among mathematics teachers. A handful of differences in outcomes were found for teachers from Lincoln Public Schools and those with different levels of undergraduate mathematics coursework and teaching experience. Analysis of student mathematics achievement data indicated both positive and negative effects of teacher participation in M2, which were small after controlling for a range of student characteristics. Examination of teacher-level factors that contributed to student achievement outcomes showed mixed effects."
Mary M. Kennedy (2010). Attribution Error and the Quest for Teacher Quality. Educational Researcher.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/22114
Abstract: "Social psychologists are persuaded that researchers as well as laymen tend to overestimate the influence of personal traits and underestimate the influence of situations on observed behavior. The author of this article suggests that education researchers and policy makers may be overestimating the role of personal qualities in their quest to understand teaching quality. In their effort to understand classroom to classroom differences in student learning, they may focus too much on the characteristics of teachers themselves, overlooking situational factors that may have a strong bearing on the quality of the teaching practices we see. The author reviews some of these situational forces."
F. Morton (2007). Approaching Mathematics Utopia?. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Exploratio.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24592
Abstract: "Collaboration, co-teaching, and coaching can be very different, yet each of these aspects of cooperative teaching involves similar layers of negotiating, planning, listening, and reflecting on the instruction and student understanding. I know that I must continue to work on being a good listener and ingrain those questions that will help a teacher reflect on the mathematics that will produce the collaborative teaching experience I envision. I have learned that it is critical to be explicit in my own intentions and expectations. Negotiating for time may be a constant frustration, but making the time for collaboration is crucial to the success of any and all aspects of teaching. Most importantly, the lesson to be learned is that the learning goes on-it doesn't stop here-and that effecting change takes time. I've just come across something in my journal that I need to post on my wall at home and at school: "The true joy in improving things is the small, daily achievements along the way." We must revel in the baby steps to appreciate the strides. Perhaps we will never reach "mathematical utopia." There is always room for improvement, revealed through reflection on practice and pedagogy, and isn't that the point? As stated in the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics:
Teacher Leaders can have a significant influence by assisting teachers in building their mathematical and pedagogical knowledge. Leaders (especially Mathematics Specialists) face the challenge of changing the emphasis of the conversation among teachers from "activities that work" to the analysis of practice [1].
Enhancing mathematics instruction to facilitate mathematical proficiency requires us to develop and design the best lessons possible, but we must continue to learn from our own lessons as well."
P. S. Moyer-Packenham, J. J. Bolyard, A. Kitsantas, H. Oh (2008). The Assessment of Mathematics and Science Teacher Quality. Peabody Journal of Education.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23946
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the types of instruments being used to document mathematics and science teacher quality characteristics in 48 nationally funded mathematics and science education awards. Each of the 48 projects operationalized teacher quality and determined how to assess it. The main research questions examined the instruments awardees used to gather data on mathematics and science teacher quality, and the main characteristics of teachers examined by awardees. Results showed that awardees most frequently used surveys or questionnaires to assess characteristics of mathematics and science teacher quality. The most common teacher characteristics examined by awardees' included teacher behaviors, practices, and beliefs, followed by the assessment of subject and pedagogical knowledge, and the documentation of mathematics and science teachers' certification. A few new instruments were under development and in use to assess characteristics of teacher quality. Detailed information on the development and psychometric properties of the instruments used for these examinations were not available from the reports. Because awardees were at different stages in their funded activities and data collection efforts were ongoing at the time of this analysis, this study offers a preliminary and formative review of the use of assessments to document mathematics and science teacher quality characteristics among these awards.
P. S. Moyer-Packenham, J. J. Bolyard, H. Oh, P. Kridler, G. Salkind (2006). Representations of Teacher Quality, Quantity, and Diversity in a National Mathematics and Science Program. Journal of Educational Research and Policy Studies.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23938
Abstract: Growing awareness of the importance of teacher quality in mathematics and science has stimulated a variety of national reports and funded initiatives for the purpose of improving teaching and learning in K-12 schools. This study examined the work of awardees in one federally-funded program that included a focus on increasing the number, quality, and diversity of mathematics and science teachers. Secondary data sources were used to understand representations of mathematics and science teacher quality, quantity, and diversity reported by awardees, and to identify interventions awardees implemented to influence teacher quality, quantity, and diversity. Results indicated a primary focus on the development of teacher characteristics such as subject knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and instructional practices. Seven common interventions were implemented across the program to influence the quality of individual teachers and the quantity and diversity of the teacher population. Three prevalent themes in the secondary documents included: a) awardees' knowledge of and implementation of research-based professional development practices; b) a shift in emphasis to include specialized subject knowledge preparation for elementary teachers, in addition to the traditional emphasis on subject knowledge for middle and high school teachers; and c) involvement of STEM faculty and Teacher Leaders in various collaborative relationships, in activities at all levels (K-12) and in both mathematics and science. Intervention efforts to influence teacher quantity and diversity were in their initial stages and limited in scope. These findings are discussed with reference to the impact of the program on the quality, quantity, and diversity of mathematics and science teachers.
P. S. Moyer-Packenham, J. Parker, A. Kitsantas, J. J. Bolyard, F. Huie (2009). Increasing the Diversity of Teachers in Mathematics and Science Partnerships. Journal of Educational Research and Policy Studies.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23957
Abstract: This study examines teacher diversity in a federally-funded mathematics and science partnership program. Each of the partnerships in the program provided preservice and/or inservice education for teachers in mathematics, science, or both. Researchers used qualitative and quantitative methods to examine the effect of strategies implemented by the partnerships to influence teacher diversity and the relationship of strategy implementation to changes in teacher diversity. There were no significant changes in teacher diversity for the program overall; however, there were significant changes in individual partnerships. Researchers identified categories of strategies for increasing teacher diversity among the partnerships and found that some partnerships employed numerous strategies in a comprehensive manner. While there were no significant relationships between strategies implemented and changes in teacher diversity, the findings suggest the potential for relationships to be revealed with further longitudinal study. Particularly useful among these findings is the identification of a typology of specific strategies known to influence changes in the diversity of mathematics and science teachers.
P. S. Moyer-Packenham, A. Westenskow (2009). Processes and Pathways: How do Mathematics and Science Partnerships Measure and Promote Growth in Teacher Content Knowledge. .
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23958
Abstract: This study examines processes for measuring growth in teachers' mathematics and science content knowledge in the National Science Foundation's Math and Science Partnership (NSF MSP) Program. The evidence of growth in teachers' content knowledge was examined with respect to the pathways provided by the partnerships in the MSP Program to impact knowledge growth. Data gathered in this study were obtained from site visits to each of the Math and Science Partnerships (MSPs), presentations by the MSPs at an annual NSF MSP conference, and secondary source documents from each MSP, including self- report surveys, annual reports, and evaluation reports. These data were used to develop a framework of processes for measuring growth and pathways promoting growth used by the partnerships. The results indicated that the most common process for measuring growth in teachers' mathematics and science content knowledge was pre-post testing of teachers, including 218 pre-post test reports on 12,952 K-12 mathematics and science teachers. Overall, the findings show that 78 percent of teachers that were pre-post tested in science and 63 percent of teachers that were pre-post tested in mathematics reported statistically significant gains in content knowledge. The most common measurement instrument used for pre-post testing in mathematics was the Learning Mathematics for Teaching instrument (Hill & Ball, 2004; Hill, Rowan, & Ball, 2005), which was used in 31percent of the pre-post testing for mathematics. There were two main pathways used by the MSPs to promote growth in teacher content knowledge: Content Explicit and Content Embedded. Content Explicit pathways included traditional workshops and university activity, where the learning of content was an explicit part of the activity; Content Embedded pathways included activities embedded in the work of groups, the work of leaders, and the work of individual teachers, where the learning of content was embedded within an activity. The interrelationships among the processes and pathways were a critical mediating factor in the collection of evidence on growth in teachers' content knowledge. For example, when the learning of content was embedded in an activity, it was a challenge for the MSPs to design a process for measuring growth in teacher content knowledge for the activity. The findings indicate that when MSPs design pathways for influencing growth in teacher content knowledge, the use of embedded pathways poses a particular dilemma. Because there is such prevalent use of content-embedded pathways to promote growth in teacher content knowledge in the NSF MSP Program, there may be large numbers of teachers for whom growth in mathematics and science content knowledge is underreported, complicated to document, or not measured at all.
Maryclaire Ngari, Linda Hansche Despriet, Judith Monsaas (2008). The Effectiveness of a Summer Program to Attract Minority Students into Mathematics and Science Teaching, their Attitudes towards Science, Mathematics and Teaching, and their Decision to Attend College. AERA.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/15471
Abstract: This paper describes the effectiveness of a summer program to attract urban minority high school students into science and mathematics teaching. The Advanced Academy for Future Teachers (AAFT) is a three-week summer program for rising juniors and seniors jointly sponsored by Atlanta Public Schools and Georgia State University. AAFT content focuses on elementary and secondary mathematics and science as well as various aspects of teaching. On the average over 69% of all AAFT participants reported that AAFT either had reinforced their decision to become a teacher or made them want to become a teacher. Qualitative data as well as preliminary data on post-graduation college attendance is reported.
M. Paruszkiewicz (2007). Trickle-Down Inspiration: From Mathematics Specialist To Teachers To Students. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Exploratio.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24588
Abstract: "As a Mathematics Specialist, there are several qualities that I strive to develop in my colleagues. I hope to help them develop mathematical patience. As teachers, we need to understand that wait time is essential for students to develop their own ideas and solutions. This requires a great deal of patience, as we often want to tell them the solution so that we can move on to the next problem. Diversity is also an important mathematical quality. We must have an understanding that almost every problem can be approached in more than one way and that traditional algorithms aren't always the best way for every student. It also takes an open-minded teacher to have the willingness to go outside the box and try new methods and strategies. Success is not always guaranteed, but as teachers, we owe it to our students to try new things in the hope that they will lead to successes, no matter how small. Finally, I want my colleagues to develop mathematical confidence so that they become more comfortable with the mathematics being taught and know that it is never too late to try a new approach."
John L. Pecore, Beth A. Christensen, Heather Mobley, Nydia Hanna (2007). Earth Core: Enhancing Delivery of Geoscience Content in a Diverse School System During Times of Changing State Standards. Journal of Geoscience Education.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24576
Abstract: "The Earth Core program provided a one week earth science content workshop to urban public school sixth grade teachers who lacked geoscience training with the goal of increasing participants' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and confidence in teaching earth science. The workshop evolved from a concern that teachers would not have the training or experience required to engage students with earth science material due to new state standards switching geoscience instruction from 8th to 6th grade. The program, aligned to Cochran's (1992) five suggestions for enhancing teachers' PCK, was designed to encourage participants to reflect by sharing teaching ideas, discuss what we found to be often nave earth science conceptions, share lesson plan ideas, and conduct action research. Field trips facilitated a bonding experience that encouraged collaboration by participants, and interactive lesson activities helped participants recognize their limited knowledge of earth science. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods were used in a mixed methods approach to this study. Participant confidence in teaching earth science was slightly elevated after the workshop. The study suggested that teachers realized how little earth science understanding they have after being confronted with advanced level geoscience concepts."
Gabriel Popkin (2012). History of APS involvement in education. .
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25242
Abstract: As part of the partnership with the American Physical Society (APS), APLU contracted with the disciplinary society to document how and why APS became involved in physics education reform as a possible guide to other disciplinary societies interested in seeding reform for STEM education in their discipline. Popkin reports that early in its history, APS focused on promoting physics research, publishing journals, and organizing meetings. As early as 1915 the Society did appoint a committee "to consider how the Society can be made useful to teachers in colleges and secondary schools,'" but APS generally declined to address educational and pedagogical issues except in marginal fashion. In the 1980's this began to change with the creation of APS' Department of Education and Outreach, which was in response to a growing awareness of educational problems facing the nation. One of the projects of this new department was a reevaluation of introductory undergraduate physics curriculum, which forged a partnership between the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT - which had spun off from APS in 1930), the American Institute of Physics (AIP), and APS.
K. Race (2007). Beyond The Textbook: Lessons Learned From Two Years As A Mathematics Specialist. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Exploratio.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24590
Abstract: "The job of the Mathematics Specialist is a rewarding one. For every teacher, the moment when a struggling student's face lights up and he says, "Oh, I get it!" makes the hard work of getting him to that point worth all the effort. The Mathematics Specialist gets the same reward when a teacher says, "When I was in school, I could do the math, but I never understood why. Now it makes so much sense. I can't wait to share this with my class." If we can be the agent of change for teachers, encouraging them to broaden and deepen their thinking about mathematics, we will have given them and their students the best possible gift."
Kimberley Raue, Joy Frechtling, Xiaodong Zhang, Gary Hedges (2005). Teacher Change in High School Science: Findings from the First Three Years of the Vertically Integrated Partnerships (VIP) K-16. MSP Evaluation Summit.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/12667
Abstract: "[T]his paper reports on findings from the first three years of implementation within Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS), specifically changes in teachers' instructional practices and attitudes, as well factors that have facilitated or hindered teacher change. Additionally, VIP has strongly promoted science as inquiry, the ability of students to use "scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science," which is a reflection of national standards (National Science Teachers Association, 2004; National Research Council, 1996; American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1993). An emphasis on inquiry-based instruction has been infused throughout VIP-supported activities, and given its importance within VIP, as well as in standards-based educational reforms more generally, particular attention is paid to its implementation and differing conceptions of inquiry-based teaching within the VIP community.

Data are drawn primarily from two sources: 1) pre- and post-program surveys of VIP's Biology Cohort and 2) classroom observations of a sample of VIP's Matter and Energy/Earth Space Systems Cohort. Data collected through other means, such as teacher evaluations of VIP-sponsored conferences and summer institutes, a focus group of Biology Cohort teachers, and a survey of Master Science Teachers (MSTs) reinforce findings from the survey and observations. The discussion of inquiry and factors influencing teacher change has broad applicability to other projects embarking on educational reform."
Kacy Redd (2012). Promoting institutional change to strengthen science & mathematics teacher preparation: An analysis of outcomes for 25 participating institutions (Working Paper). .
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25244
Abstract: Promoting Institutional Change to Strengthen Science and Mathematics Teacher Preparation provides an analysis of the final reports from 23 of the 25 institutions in the TLC. For their final reports, TLC Team Leaders were asked to respond to a series of targeted questions about their institutions' involvement with the TLC. The final reports were reviewed, answers distilled, and common themes or core ideas across the institutions were identified. Each reported successful outcome was coded as a program improvement, program restructuring, or campus-wide change.
Promoting Rigorous Outcomes in Mathematics and Science Education (2006). Research Report - Knowing Mathematics: What We Can Learn from Teachers. PROM/SE Research Report.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13841
Abstract: The report highlights data collected from over 4,100 K-12 teachers in nearly 60 participating school districts in Michigan and Ohio. PROM/SE surveyed K-12 mathematics teachers about their knowledge of mathematics for teaching and how they acquired it. Key findings reveal significant differences among grade bands and in participating districts in teachers' feelings of preparedness to teach nearly 50 mathematics topics. Data reveal that elementary and middle school teachers do not feel well prepared to teach higher math topics which most likely impacts their ability to lay critical foundations for their students' later, higher math success. Long-term and systematic solutions for K-12 districts, professional development, and teacher preparation programs are discussed. Key recommendations for districts are provided, including: recognizing that teachers need professional development that focuses on specific topics in the mathematics school curriculum to offer them a deep understanding of these topics; assigning the most mathematically sophisticated teachers to foundational high school courses such as first year algebra; and creating induction programs for beginning teachers that emphasize the teaching of specific mathematics content.
Beth Rodriguez, Susan Garthwaite (2007). A Day In The Life Of Two Mathematics Specialists: Bringing Math To The Forefront In Elementary Schools. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Exploratio.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24594
Abstract: "Math has become a focal point at both Beth's and Susan's schools as a result of their positions as Mathematics Specialists. Both of them analyze student data and assess teachers' needs to decide the best way to support the mathematics program at their individual schools. Even though their method of providing this support varies, both Beth and Susan offer assistance to teachers when they are unsure about math content and when they want to attempt a new strategy in their classrooms. Beth and Susan share new resources with teachers, and model best practices in their classrooms so that they become skilled at teaching mathematics to all learners. They also make teachers aware of the latest research on how students learn mathematics. Their role is critical to improving mathematics education at the elementary level because with their assistance, teachers are thinking critically about the math concepts they are teaching and the methods they are using to do so."
Neil Schiavo, Barbara Miller, Patricia Kannapel, Amy Busey (2010). Toward Sustainability: Cases and cross-case analysis of the strategies of MSP project leaders to sustain their teacher leader programs. MSP-Knowledge Management and Dissemination.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/20977
Abstract: While many designers of teacher leader programs aim for sustainability, a variety of challenges and limited resources often undermine their efforts. The MSP-Knowledge Management and Dissemination (MSP-KMD) project presents a cross-case analysis, drawing on four cases, that highlights the strategies of MSP project leaders to sustain their teacher leader programs. The cross-case analysis features key ideas that current and future program designers might implement to leverage limited resources in sustaining essential aspects of their teacher leader programs. Each of the four cases focuses on the teacher leadership program of a single MSP, and provides detailed descriptions of the issues and strategies that influenced project leaders' efforts to sustain their teacher leader programs.
Laura Schieb, Stuart Karabenick (2011). Teacher Motivation and Professional Development: A Guide to Resources. 2011 LNC Conference.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24026
Abstract: Teacher Motivation and Professional Development: A Guide to Resources provides information on teacher motivation for those planning, conducting, and evaluating PD in math and science. Over 250 resources relevant to teacher motivation and PD were identified and categorized. Categories are described with representative citations, commentaries, and examples to facilitate the search for relevant information. General trends in the literature are noted, including the importance of teacher self-efficacy, the need for collaboration, intrinsic rewards, teacher autonomy, administrative support, and education policy. Given limitations in the existing literature, it was concluded that more research is needed to understand how reforms in curriculum and instruction affect teacher motivation for PD. In addition to the document, a searchable database is available at mspmap.org. See Companion Website: Professional Development Resource Database
Stephen Schilling (2007). The Role of Psychometric Modeling in Test Validation for the MKT Measures: An Application of Multidimensional Item Response Theory. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17835
Abstract: "One of the key challenges facing psychometrics as a discipline is demonstrating its relevance with regards to substantive issues in educational and psychological research. One problem is that psychometric modeling has long been considered part of reliability analysis, which has traditionally been considered separately from test validation. However, this separation can be viewed as artificial (Marcoulides, 2004) and we believe that test validation must necessarily employ psychometric modeling to investigate key assumptions and inferences. Such an investigation intimately connects psychometric modeling to substantive concerns and provides a gateway for the relevance of psychometrics in educational and psychological research. In this paper we examine the role of item response theory (IRT), particularly multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) in test validation from a validity argument perspective."
Stephen Schilling, Merrie Blunk, Heather Hill (2007). Test Validation and the MKT Measures: Generalizations and Conclusions. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17831
Abstract: "This series of papers had two main objectives: (1) Use the validity argument approach to critically assess the assumptions underlying the MKT scales; (2) Use this experience to critically assess the validity argument approach. We argue that understanding the validity argument approach arises from real world applications to specific examples. Engaging in these applications suggests possible methodologies for the validity argument approach. Schilling and Hill presented the validity argument approach, introduced the MKT measures, and developed an interpretive argument. Drawing on the work of Kane, we specified an interpretive argument that contained three types of assumptions and inferences: an elemental assumption-that answers to individual items correspond to their reasoning for those items; a structural assumption-that the organization of items reflects the types of MKT employed by teachers, specifically common content knowledge (CCK), specialized content knowledge (SCK), and knowledge of content and students (KCS); an ecological assumption-that the items reflect the knowledge that teachers need to teach mathematics, and scores are therefore related to the mathematical quality of instruction and improved student learning. Hill, Dean, and Goffney investigated the elemental structural assumptions, examining interview transcripts to determine respondents' reasons underlying answers to the items. Schilling examined the structural assumption, illustrating the importance of specifying a test domain structure consisting of unidimensional components and showing how multidimensional and unidimensional IRT models can be used to test this structure. Hill et al. investigated the ecological assumption, examining the correlation between teachers' performance on our instruments and classroom mathematics instruction and student achievement.
In this paper, we complete the summative stage of the validity argument approach, then use our experiences to reflect on the validity argument as a method. We begin by evaluating the inferences and assumptions of the interpretive argument for the MKT measures. Then we examine both the form and the structure of the interpretive argument for the MKT measures with an eye to generalizations that can be made to other efforts to construct interpretive arguments. Finally we will attempt to draw some reasonable generalizations and conclusions concerning the summative stage."
Stephen Schilling, Heather Hill (2007). Assessing Measures of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Validity Argument Approach. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17829
Abstract: In assessing the utility of a test, two issues stand out: whether it provides information of interest to test consumers, and whether scores generated by the test assist in making good decisions. Validity addresses these two issues, making an assessment of test validity the single most important product provided by test developers. Unfortunately, despite its importance, test validation is almost universally viewed as the most unsatisfactory aspect of test development. As Messick (1988) noted, there has been a consistent disjunction between validity conceptualization and validation practice. To start, the proliferation of many different kinds of validity evidence without clear prioritization presents test consumers with an enormous task, that of sifting through various methods, approaches, and empirical work to determine the usability of a test. At the same time, some test developers use evidence (and methods) selectively, choosing convenient means for test validation, and convenient results for reporting. Kane (2001, 2004a) developed an argument-based approach to validity as a means of addressing these difficulties. His approach consists of two stages, the Formative Stage and the Summative Stage. In this set of papers, we use Kane's approach to validate a measure of teachers' mathematical knowledge. We do so not only to learn about the measure itself, but also to assess the promise of and problems with the argument-based approach to validity. In doing so, we attend closely to issues raised in the lead author's and others' responses to Kane's original work.
Therese Shanahan, Karajean Hyde, Sue Marshall, Roslyn Soto (2008). Early Development of a Student-Centered Perspective in Science and Math Pre-Service Teachers. Association for Science Teacher Education conference, St. Louis,.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/15305
Abstract: "This pilot study investigates the influence of instructor modeling on future math and science teachers' student-centered perspective as evidenced in planning classroom lessons. The lesson plans of twenty-seven credential students with no experience in student-centered classroom instruction were compared to lesson plans by five pre-service students and twenty-one undergraduates with such experience. An analysis of variance finds a significant difference in the student-centeredness of the lesson plans of the credential students compared to the other two groups but no significant difference between the pre-service students with prior experience and the undergraduates. After ten weeks of instruction, fifteen of the credential students also completed a survey that included questions about teacher practices, student objectives, and different classroom discussion scenarios. All of the students indicated that they would use student-centered approaches and seem to have developed an inclination toward reform-based pedagogy."
Kenneth L. Smith, David Burghardt (2007). Teaching Engineering at the K-12 Level: Two Perspectives. The Technology Teacher.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24539
Abstract: "In this article, the authors share their own perspectives regarding engineering education at the K-12 level. Smith believes that there must be a more direct infusion of appropriate mathematics and science with the unique technological content (tools, machines, materials, processes) for an effective engineering education program to exist. He thinks that the most direct solution for a meaningful and appropriate engineering education program is to generate a national standards document that blends "selected" standards in mathematics (NCTM), science (AAAS), and technology (STL) at all grade levels to ensure an appropriately rigorous and sophisticated program that helps students "think like an engineer." On the other hand, Burghardt thinks that an effort within the engineering education community to develop K-12 engineering standards is not wise. While the "Standards for Technological Literacy" document fails to address all the concerns of the engineering education community, it does address many of them. He thinks this could be an ideal time to revise "Standards for Technological Literacy." He concludes that the real focus needs to be on students and how educators can improve their understanding of and appreciation for the technological world while deepening their knowledge in mathematics and science."
John Smithson, Rolf Blank (2006). Indicators of Quality of Teacher Professional Development and Instructional Change Using Data from Surveys of Enacted Curriculum: Findings from NSF MSP-RETA Project. MSP Evaluation Summit II.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13456
Abstract: "In 2002, an MSP-RETA project grant was awarded to the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) to conduct an empirical study of the quality of professional development provided through MSP supported projects that would test new survey-based tools for analyzing the effectiveness of teacher professional development. A team led by CCSSO with partners at American Institutes for Research and the Wisconsin Center for Education Research conducted the study. The present paper describes findings from the study team's longitudinal analysis of data from Surveys of Enacted Curriculum with teachers of math and science in four MSP grantee sites."

Research Questions
"To assist NSF and the Math-Science Partnerships toward the goal of improving methods of evaluating the professional development models for improving teacher knowledge and skills, the study team designed a three-year empirical study to demonstrate and test an objective, reliable methodology for measuring the quality of professional development activities. The study data are being analyzed to measure the effects teacher professional development opportunities on improving the quality of instruction in mathematics and science education. More specifically, the study has three main research questions: To what extent is the quality of the professional development supported by MSP activities consistent with research-based definitions of quality? What effects do teachers' professional development experiences have on instructional practices and content taught in math and science classes? Are high-quality professional development activities more likely than lower-quality activities to increase the alignment of instructional content with state standards and assessments?"
Debora Southwell (2007). The Characteristics Necessary For A Mathematics Specialist. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Exploratio.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24598
Abstract: "Since beginning this work in 1991, I have witnessed and read about heated discussions on the evils and wonders of this "new kind of math." From school board meetings to parent e-mails to teacher remarks in the staff room, the passion brought about by discussions related to mathematics has been certainly frustrating at times since in my school role I have been a "lonely" figure-someone who is neither in an administrative position nor a teaching position. Over time, however, I have experienced an increased sense of belonging. I chalk this up to the expanded work of NCTM and the many original publications that have been created by this organization to educate and set goals for mathematics learning in our country. Conferences, workshops, on-line seminars are a few of the mediums I have used to network and grow in my position. In the last two years, I have found a true home as a Mathematics Specialist inside a district that supports a collegial band of Mathematics Specialists who can raise consciousness and improve craftsmanship within our schools, within our district, and within our state. Two fundamental beliefs that have guided me over the years in this work are: 1) the idea that all children can and need to learn mathematics with conceptual understanding; and, 2) the idea that both adults and students construct their mathematical knowledge. Both of these beliefs are controversial and demand time to occur. In a culture where time is money, and where the national and local politics of right versus wrong guide educational policy, these beliefs can be intentionally and unintentionally trampled and disregarded. I see it as a core piece of the Mathematics Specialist's work to raise these beliefs for examination and reflection when providing professional development to educators of all types."
Jennifer Steele, John Pane, Valerie Williams, Stuart Olmsted (2006). Professional Development Participation and the Role of Administrator Involvement in the MSP of SW Pennsylvania. MSP Evaluation Summit II.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13458
Abstract: "This study reinforces findings in the literature showing positive relationships between administrative leadership in central offices and the professional growth and development of school staff. The findings here are largely consistent with our hypothesis that administrator participation is related to staff participation. As we have explained, these findings should not be interpreted as causal, but they do lend support to the idea that MSP participation at or near the top of a school district's organizational hierarchy is related to participation among individuals working in schools. The findings also lend justification to the MSP directors' emphasis on administrator engagement and participation."
Brenda G. Bergman, and Jacqueline E. Huntoon Stephanie C. Tubman* (2016). To What Extent Should Students Learn Science Content Through Engaging in the Practice of Doing Science? Teacher Beliefs and NGSS Attitudes vs. Reported Classroom Practice. Michigan Science Teachers Association Journal.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/31662
Abstract: One issue that will influence how teachers adopt NGSS-aligned standards is teachers'
preexisting beliefs and attitudes about what constitute effective methods for science teaching and learning (Banilower, Trygstad, and Smith, 2015; Trygstad, Smith, Banilower, and Nelson, 2013). The Framework and NGSS describe a vision for science education in which students will primarily learn science concepts by engaging in SEPs. Students are to generate and interpret evidence and develop explanations through sustained investigations, all while increasing their
capacity to direct all aspects of the process over time (National Research Council, 2012). This contrasts with the current state of science education in many classrooms, in which students primarily learn concepts through direct instruction with occasional reinforcement through engagement in SEPs (Banilower et al., 2015). According to results from the 2012 National Survey of Mathematics and Science Education (Banilower et al., 2013), around 60% of teachers believe that hands-on experimentation should reinforce concepts students have already learned, 40-50% of teachers believe that they should explain a concept to students before the students consider evidence related to the concept, and 90% of teachers believe that
vocabulary should come before conceptual understanding. Interventions to support teachers in adopting NGSS-aligned standards will need to take into account that many educators' beliefs may not align with the notion of consistently teaching science content through SEPs, as envisioned by authors of the Framework and NGSS.
Mark St. John, Kasi Allen, Becky Carroll, Heather Mitchell, Elizabeth Horsch, Laurie Lopez (2008). The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics And Science Reform - CLOSE-UP PAPERS. Inverness Research.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/15832
Abstract: This document contains four brief reports that illuminate key strategies employed in the Appalachian Math Science Partnership (AMSP). They are intended to be read along with the main report, The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics And Science Reform. The reports included in this document are: I. The Regional Program Coordinators: Making Connections and Developing Local Leadership II. Baseline Improvement Sites and the Program Improvement Review: Promoting School-wide Involvement in Math and Science Reform III. The Partnership Enhancement Program: A Strategy for Supporting Locally Designed Partnerships IV. Motivating Change in Institutions of Higher Education Through Collaboration with K-12 Partners
Mark St. John, Kasi Allen, Becky Carroll, Heather Mitchell, Elizabeth Horsch, Laurie Lopez (2008). The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics And Science Reform. Inverness Research.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/15833
Abstract: The Appalachian Math Science Partnership (AMSP) is a project within NSF's Math Science Partnerships (MSP) initiative. Funded at $23 million over five years, the AMSP involved 51 school districts and nine higher education institutions in Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. The AMSP faced two significant challenges in its effort to live up to the vision of the MSP initiative and to its own hopes and goals. First, its service area, Appalachia, comprises some of the most isolated and stressed communities and school systems in the United States. Second, the mere scale of the partnership--60 organizations in several states--defied easy implementation. Yet despite these challenges (indeed, working to address them directly), the AMSP built upon existing leadership capacity in the region and created not only effective partnerships, but ultimately formed what we view as the foundation for a sustainable regional "improvement infrastructure" for science and mathematics. In this set of five papers, we portray the evolution, design and strategies of the AMSP. We believe that the design principles the AMSP adhered to, the responsiveness of AMSP leaders to local needs and issues, and the strategies they devised to make good on their promise have relevance for others who invest in the improvement of science and math education, particularly in rural regions. This paper, entitled "The Appalachian Math Science Partnership: A Multi-State Umbrella Partnership Promoting Local Mathematics And Science Reform," is the core document of the set of five and stands alone. It provides background on the initiative and on the regional landscape, gives an account of how the AMSP's overall design as an "umbrella partnership" formed, describes the major strategies and components of the partnership (including the benefits they produced and lessons learned from their implementation), documents the core values and design principles underlying the umbrella partnership, and offers our conceptualization of the AMSP as a regional improvement infrastructure. The four papers identified as AMSP Close-ups (a single document) are companions to this core document. They illuminate in more detail key strategies of the larger partnership.
Lyn Ely Swackhamer, Karen Koellner, Carole Basile, Doris Kimbrough (2007). Increasing the Self-Efficacy of Inservice Teachers. Submitted for publication.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14381
Abstract: Abstract
In a number of studies, self-efficacy of pre-service teachers has been correlated to high quality instructional practices in the classroom. Studies have also shown that content courses that focus on pedagogy or how to teach content have been successful in raising pre-service teachers' efficacy levels (Appleton, 1995; Palmer, 2001). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether levels of personal or outcome efficacy can be affected in practicing teachers by simply increasing the level of basic content knowledge. Self-efficacy data of 88 teachers in math and science were examined to discern the level of self-efficacy after taking content courses; the difference in self-efficacy between teachers who took four or more courses versus those who took less; and then through a qualitative lens to examine the characteristics of teachers with high self-efficacy.
Paola Sztajn, Matthew P. Campbell, Kwang Suk Yoon (2011). Conceptualizing Professional Development in Mathematics: Elements of a Model. PNA, 5(3).
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25381
Abstract: "This theoretical paper discusses the concept of models for mathematics professional development. After examining the related literature, we propose a definition of this concept that includes four elements: goals, theories, contexts, and structure. We present aspects of professional de- velopment that comprise each element."
Rosalie T. Torres, Kathleen Bocian, Michael Bryant (2006). Evidence Based Decision Making to Support Teacher Learning in the Mathematical ACTS MSP. MSP Evaluation Summit II.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13482
Abstract: Members of Mathematical ACTS MSP project presented on project activities and findings at the MSP Evaluation Summit in October 2006.
J. Tyler, S. Vitanova (2008). Does MSP Participation Increase the Supply of Math Teachers? Developing and Testing an Analytic Model. Peabody Journal of Education.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23948
Abstract: An important feature of the Math and Science Partnership Program (MSP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) is to increase K-12 student achievement in math and science by increasing the quality, quantity, and diversity of the nation's K-12 math and science teachers. Because the underlying supply of math and science teachers is never directly observed, the central premise of this paper is that an examination of the extent to which the Partnership Program might impact the quantity and quality of math and science teachers requires careful thought and modeling. With that starting point, this study first develops a model that supports a premise that shifts in underlying supply can be inferred from shifts in the percentage of certified math teachers employed when (1) salaries are constrained to be below market clearing salaries and (2) uncertified or "out-of- field" certified teachers can compete as substitutes for certified math teachers. The study then tests the plausibility of the model using data from Texas and in so doing provides preliminary estimates of the extent to which a school or school district's partnership participation affected the supply of certified math teachers available to that school or district. The results, while inconclusive on the question of the labor supply effects of partnership participation by a school or school district, do suggest the reasonableness of the model for future work when more appropriate data will be available.
Cindy Walker, Tom Schmitt, Tamara B. Miller (2006). How Valid Are Self-Report Survey Data Obtained from School District Personnel?. MSP Evaluation Summit II.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13481
Abstract: "Most quantitative evaluation endeavors undertaken to assess the effectiveness of large scale educational reform efforts must rely on self-report data to some extent. For example, the analytical framework used to assess the impact of the Milwaukee Mathematics Partnership (MMP) on increasing student achievement in mathematics is largely dependent on data obtained from an online survey administered to all Milwaukee Public School District (MPS) employees at the K-8 level who have the potential to positively affect student achievement in mathematics. This survey was designed to measure various aspects of educators’ daily responsibilities that would likely be affected by MMP activities and in turn, affect student achievement in mathematics. However, the validity of self-report data is always suspect due to the possibility of response bias, which occurs if participants respond to items in a more socially appealing manner. In the current survey, because respondents are primarily reporting on the quality of their own work and that of their colleagues it is quite possible that the validity of our data is compromised by response bias. Moreover, if this is true then the results of any statistical tests conducted on these data may be biased because these results are wholly dependent on how well the variables have been measured.

Therefore, this year the evaluation team of the MMP made a concerted effort to assess the validity of our self-report data. Two approaches were taken to attain this goal: (1) A global approach that utilized all schools in the district that participated in the quantitative evaluation efforts; and (2) A case-study approach that only made use of schools that participated in the qualitative evaluation efforts. For the global approach, overall indicators of the quality and quantity of a school’s participation in MMP related activities obtained from the self-report survey data were compared to ratings obtained from the district level Mathematics Teaching Specialists (MTS) assigned to that school. For the case-study approach, an attempt was made to triangulate the self-report survey data obtained with other external criteria in a subset of schools targeted to participate in more in-depth intensive evaluation efforts. The primary purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology utilized and report the findings for both of these approaches to assess the validity of our data."
Denise Walston (2005). Mathematics Specialists in Norfolk Public Schools. The Journal of Mathematics and Science: Collaborative Exploratio.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23913
Abstract: "In a dramatic move in Summer 2004, the Norfolk City Public Schools (NCPS) allocated funds to place a full-time mathematics resource person in 33 of the district's 35 elementary schools. These teachers function in support of mathematics instruction by: building a presence for mathematics; working collaboratively with individual teachers and/or grade levels; supporting the administration in terms of improving the mathematics program at the building level; and, working with small groups of students on a regular basis. These are not "pullout" programs. The goal for this Teacher Leader program is to positively impact mathematics teaching and learning in the entire school. This step was the culmination of a evolutionary journey that began in 1990-91 with a Mathematics Lead Teacher program, Project Math Lead. In this article, we tell the story of the process and the vision behind it."
Andrew J. Wayne, Kwang Suk Yoon, Pei Zhu, Stephanie Cronen, Mike Garet (2008). Experimenting with teacher professional development: Motives and methods. Educational Researcher, 37(8).
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25379
Abstract: "A strong base of research is needed to guide investments in teacher professional development (PD). This article considers the status of research on PD and articulates a particular direction for future work. Little is known about whether PD can have a positive impact on achievement when a program is delivered across a range of typical settings and when its delivery depends on multiple trainers. Despite a consensus in the lit- erature on the features of effective PD, there is limited evidence on the specific features that make a difference for achievement. This article explains the benefits offered by experiments in addressing current research needs andfor those conducting and interpreting such studiesdiscusses the unique methodological issues encountered when experimental methods are applied to the study of PD."
Iris R. Weiss, Daniel J. Heck, Joan D. Pasley, Evelyn M. Gordon, Patricia J. Kannapel (2010). Designing for Sustainability: Lessons Learned about Deepening Teacher Content Knowledge from Four Cases in NSF's Math and Science Partnership Program. Horizon Research and Education Development Corp.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/21985
Abstract: Designers of professional development programs aimed at deepening teacher content knowledge strive for sustainability in the face of a variety of challenges and limited resources. The MSP-Knowledge Management and Dissemination (MSP-KMD) project presents a cross-case analysis, drawing on four cases, that highlights the strategies of MSP project leaders to sustain their efforts at deepening teacher content knowledge. The cross-case analysis features key ideas that current and future program designers might implement to leverage limited resources in sustaining essential aspects of their programs. Each of the four cases focuses on a single MSP's program to deepen teacher content knowledge, and provides detailed descriptions of the issues and strategies that influenced project leaders' efforts to sustain their work.
Joy Whitenack, Aimee Ellington (2007). A Methodology to Explain Teachers' Emerging Roles As K-5 Mathematics Specialists. Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/24124
Abstract: "This paper describes the emerging roles of two K-5 mathematics specialists who are or who will be serving in leadership roles at their respective school buildings. One of the two teachers is a regular elementary classroom whereas the other teacher serves as a mathematics specialist in her school building. Both of these individuals were participants in a case study research project conducted through the MSP grant project. They also completed the degree program through the MSP project. The aim of this research study is to understand the participants induction processes in different settings as they become and/or continue to serve as mathematics specialists. The mathematics specialist coaches teachers on a daily basis and is established as the resident expert on how children learn mathematics. The classroom teacher designs her own opportunities to collaborate and co-teach with other teachers in her building. While she is not the specialist for her building, she is someone that others turn to with questions related to curriculum and pedagogical issues."
Osman Yasar (2009). Striving to Raise the Bar to Higher Levels: Integrated STEM Education. SCOLLARCITY MSP.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/19488
Abstract: A booklet summarizing a technology approach to integrate math and science education. This booklet is the 2003-2008 Progress Report for the SUNY-Brockport College and Rochester City (SCOLLARCITY) Math and Science Partnership.
Kwang Suk Yoon, Teresa Duncan, Silvia Wen-Yu Lee, Beth Scarloss, Kathy L. Shapley (2007). Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement. Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W.-Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley,.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/25377
Abstract: A systematic review of the evidence on the effects of teacher professional development on student achievement; a study supported by U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Science, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Laboratory Southwest
Kwang Suk Yoon, Michael Garet, Beatrice Birman, Reuben Jacobson (2006). Examining the Effects of Mathematics and Science Professional Development on Teachers' Instructional Practice: Using Professional Development Activity Log. .
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14404
Abstract: "This study builds upon the AIR Eisenhower evaluation. We have adopted the six quality features of professional development activities as well as the measurement scheme of comparing Year 3 to Year 1 instructional practices, utilizing Year 2 professional development features as the linchpin for change. We go further, however, to obtain estimates of the effects of the full portfolio of teachers' professional development on teaching practice by examining a comprehensive and complete description of each respondent's set of professional development experiences in secondary mathematics and science. To these ends, we developed an innovative approach using teacher logs to capture the full scope of professional development activities that teachers experience over an extended period of time."
Xiaodong Zhang, Joy Frechtling, Joseph McInerney, Glenn Nyre, Joan Michie, Atsushi Miyaoka, John Wells (2006). A Year 2 RETA Report for Effect of STEM Faculty Engagement in MSP--A Longitudinal Perspective. WESTAT.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/12975
Abstract: "The Math and Science Partnership (MSP) program is a major national research and development effort that supports innovative partnerships to improve K-12 student achievement in mathematics and science. Deep engagement of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplinary faculty is a hallmark of this program. The program posits that disciplinary faculty hold the knowledge that K-12 teachers need, and that if faculty are substantially involved, the chain of professional knowledge will be strengthened and result in improved student achievement. Westat's research, evaluation, and technical assistance (RETA) grant aims to examine this assumption empirically. Specifically, we are asking how are STEM faculty engaged in MSP? Does the involvement make any difference in enhancing teacher quality and increasing student achievement? And are there particular circumstances in which certain types of involvement contribute more or less than others on these dimensions? In essence, we ask what works, for whom, and under what circumstance."
Xiaodong Zhang, Joseph McInerney (2006). Exploration of the Process and Impact of STEM Faculty Involvement. MSP Evaluation Summit II.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/13475
Abstract: "Deep engagement of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplinary faculty is a hallmark of the MSP program, which posits that disciplinary faculty hold the knowledge that K – 12 teachers need, and that if faculty are substantially involved, the chain of professional knowledge will be strengthened and result in improved student achievement. Westat’s research, evaluation, and technical assistance (RETA) grant aims to examine this assumption empirically. Specifically, we are asking how are STEM faculty engaged in MSP? Does the involvement make any difference in enhancing teacher quality and increasing student achievement? And are there particular circumstances in which certain types of involvement contribute more or less than others on these dimensions? The paper presents preliminary findings from the first 2 years of this 4-year project. "
Xiaodong Zhang, Joseph McInerney, Joy Frechtling, Glenn Nyre, Joan Michie, Atsushi Miyaoka, John Wells, Molly Hershey-Arista (2007). A Year 3 Report for Effect of STEM Faculty Engagement in MSP--A Longitudinal Perspective. Prepared by WESTAT for NSF.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14375
Abstract: "The Math and Science Partnership (MSP) program is a major national research and development effort that supports innovative partnerships to improve K-12 student achievement in mathematics and science. Deep engagement of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplinary faculty is a hallmark of this program. The program posits that disciplinary faculty hold the knowledge that K-12 teachers need, and that if faculty are substantially involved, the chain of professional knowledge will be strengthened and result in improved student achievement. Westat's research, evaluation, and technical assistance (RETA) grant examines this assumption empirically. Specifically, we ask how are STEM faculty engaged in MSP? Does the involvement make any difference in enhancing teacher quality and increasing student achievement? And are there particular circumstances in which certain types of involvement contribute more or less than others on these dimensions? In essence, we ask what works, for whom, and under what circumstance."
Monica D. Zucker, Carole Basile, Nancy Shanklin (2007). Literacy in the content areas: How teachers use math and science to teach literacy and use literacy to enhance math and science content. .
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/14457
Abstract: "Teachers, literacy coaches, and media specialists who were taking classes through a math and science partnership and who also teach literacy were interviewed to discover how they use math and science to teach literacy and how they use literacy strategies to teach math and science content. The study concluded that these teachers are using literacy strategies across content areas and are engaging students in reading and writing using math and science texts."
STEM Professional Learning Communities (2011). MSP-KMD Knowledge Reviews.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/23873
Abstract:

Professional learning communities (PLCs) have become a popular mechanism for improving teaching and learning in the K-12 STEM topics. What factors should be considered in determining whether or not to use PLCs, the appropriate structure and composition of PLCs, necessary knowledge and skills for quality facilitation, and how to ensure teacher and administrative buy-in and support of PLCs? The MSP-Knowledge Management and Dissemination (KMD) project is pleased to announce the publication of a series of reviews from research and practice in the area of K-12 STEM professional learning communities. The knowledge reviews provide guidance to those who design or support STEM PLCs. By following the link below, you will have an opportunity to learn from the information related to five topics:

Involving STEM Disciplinary Faculty in Deepening Teacher/Teacher Leader Content Knowledge (2009). MSP-KMD Knowledge Reviews.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17897
Abstract: This series of Knowledge Reviews provide a summary of what we know from experienced practitioners and research in the area of involving STEM disciplinary faculty in deepening teacher/teacher leader content knowledge.
Developing and Supporting Teacher Leaders (2008). MSP-KMD Knowledge Reviews.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17899
Deepening Teacher Content Knowledge (2008). MSP-KMD Knowledge Reviews.
Full Paper: http://hub.mspnet.org/index.cfm/17901

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